Haemodynamic Transition after Birth: A New Tool for Non-Invasive Cardiac Output Monitoring

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Freidl et al, Neonatology 2017 Abstract Background: Substantial haemodynamic changes occur during the first minutes after birth. Currently, only heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation are routinely used to monitor haemodynamic transition after birth. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to continuously assess haemodynamic changes during transition in …

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Diagnosis Accuracy of Transcutaneous Bilirubinometry in Very Preterm Newborns

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Rubio et al, Neonatology 2017 Abstract Background: Transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) is a validated test for systematic screening of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and monitoring term and near-term infants under phototherapy. Objectives: To evaluate TcB diagnostic accuracy for very preterm neonates. Methods: Total serum bilirubin (TSB) and TcB measurements were performed prospectively in a …

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Maturation of the infant microbiome community structure and function across multiple body sites and in relation to mode of delivery

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Chu et al, Nature Medicine(2017) Abstract Human microbial communities are characterized by their taxonomic, metagenomic and metabolic diversity, which varies by distinct body sites and influences human physiology. However, when and how microbial communities within each body niche acquire unique taxonomical and functional signatures in early life remains underexplored. We conclude …

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Association of Perinatal Risk Factors with Autism Spectrum Disorder

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Getahun et al, Amer J Perinatol, Jan, 2017 Abstract Objective To examine the association between exposures to perinatal factors and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Conclusion Exposure to antepartum or intrapartum complications increases the risk of ASD in the offspring. Therefore, pregnancy complications may help identify children who could benefit from early screening and …

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Prophylactic Probiotics for Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

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Olsen et al, Neonatology, Vol. 109, No. 2, 2016 Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major morbidity and cause of mortality in preterm neonates. Probiotics seem to have a beneficial role in preventing NEC, which is confirmed in meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We therefore aimed to review and confirm …

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Psychiatric Disorders and General Functioning in Low Birth Weight Adults: A Longitudinal Study

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Lærum et al, Pediatrics, January 2017 Abstract OBJECTIVE: To examine psychiatric morbidity and overall functioning in adults born with low birth weight compared with normal birth weight controls at age 26 years and to study longitudinal trajectories of psychiatric morbidity from early adolescence to adulthood.  CONCLUSIONS: Low birth weight was a substantial …

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Synchronized mechanical ventilation for respiratory support in newborn infants

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Greenough et al, September 2016, Cochrane Neonatal Group Background During synchronised mechanical ventilation, positive airway pressure and spontaneous inspiration coincide. If synchronous ventilation is provoked, adequate gas exchange should be achieved at lower peak airway pressures, potentially reducing baro/volutrauma, air leak and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Synchronous ventilation can potentially be achieved by …

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Association Between Early Lactate Levels and 30-Day Mortality in Clinically Suspected Sepsis in Children

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Scott, et al, JAMA Pediatr. January 9, 2017.  Abstract Importance  Improving emergency care of pediatric sepsis is a public health priority, but optimal early diagnostic approaches are unclear. Measurement of lactate levels is associated with improved outcomes in adult septic shock, but pediatric guidelines do not endorse its use, in part because …

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Maternal Preferences for Vitamin D Supplementation in Breastfed Infants

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Umaretiya, et al, annals of family medicine, 2016 Abstract Daily vitamin D supplementation is recommended for breastfed infants, but alternative methods include enriching breast milk with vitamin D through maternal supplementation or intermittent high-dose vitamin D. We determined maternal preferences for vitamin D supplementation in 140 mothers with exclusively breastfed …

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