“عظماء أبو الريش الراحلون من ظلمات صندوق النسيان إلى أضواء المعرفة والعرفان”

  السيدات والسادة الزملاء الأفاضل السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته،،،  وفاء للوعد الذى قطعه عل نفسه ا.د. صلاح نصار الأستاذ المتفرغ بقسم طب الأطفال بكلية طب قصر العينى – جامعة القاهرة، والخادم العاشق فى محراب “البيت الكبير”، فقد وفقنا الله سبحانه وتعالى، إلى وضع استرتيجية، وأهداف وخطة تنفيذ الكتاب، الذى…

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Ventilation in Extremely Preterm Infants and Respiratory Function at 8 Years

Doyle et al, N Engl J Med. 2017 Jul BACKGROUND: Assisted ventilation for extremely preterm infants (<28 weeks of gestation) has become less invasive, but it is unclear whether such developments in care are associated with improvemen ts in short-term or long-term lung function. We compared changes over time in the use of assisted ventilation and oxygen therapy…

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Delayed versus Immediate Cord Clamping in Preterm Infants

Tarnow-Mordi W et al, N Engl J Med. 2017 Dec BACKGROUND The preferred timing of umbilical-cord clamping in preterm infants is unclear.  METHODS The primary composite outcome was death or major morbidity (defined as severe brain injury on postnatal ultrasonography, severe retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis, or late-onset sepsis) by 36 weeks…

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Long-Term Effects of Inhaled Budesonide for Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

Bassler et at, N Engl J Med. 2018 Jan BACKGROUND : The long-term effects on neurodevelopment of the use of inhaled glucocorticoids in extremely preterm infants for the prevention or treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia are uncertain.  CONCLUSIONS   Among surviving extremely preterm infants, the rate of neurodevelopmental disability at 2 years did…

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Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: state of the evidence from a systematic review of randomised trials

Roth et al, BMJ, 2017 Abstract Objectives: To estimate the effects of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on 11 maternal and 27 neonatal/infant outcomes; to determine frequencies at which trial outcome data were missing, unreported, or inconsistently reported; and to project the potential contributions of registered ongoing or planned trials. Design: Systematic…

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Benign Neonatal Shudders, Shivers, Jitteriness, or Tremors: Early Signs of Vitamin D Deficiency

Collins & Young Pediatrics, July 2017 Abstract and tremors in the newborn period typically precipitate an extensive, invasive, and expensive search for the etiology. Vitamin D deficiency has not been historically included in the differential of tremors. We report a shivering, jittery newborn who was subjected to a battery of testing, with…

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Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Low Birth Weight Neonates at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Retrospective Observational Study

Lee et al, February 2017 Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most common healthcare-associated infections among ventilated patients. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics and risk factors for the development of VAP in intubated low birth weight (LBW) neonates in a neonatal intensive care…

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Bosentan as Adjunctive Therapy for Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn: Results of the Randomized Multicenter Placebo-Controlled Exploratory Trial.

Steinhorn et al, J Pediatr. 2016 Oct Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of the endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan as adjunctive therapy for neonates with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). STUDY DESIGN: This was a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled exploratory trial (FUTURE-4). Eligible patients were >34 weeks gestation, <7 days old,…

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Risk Factors for Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Neonates: A Retrospective Case-Control Study

Lu et al, April 2017 Background Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in neonates is devastating, and risk-factor identification is crucial. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors for NEC in different gestational age (GA) groups. Methods Risk factors associated with NEC were investigated using a retrospective case-control design.   Conclusion Intrahepatic cholestasis of…

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Probiotics Prevent Candida Colonization and Invasive Fungal Sepsis in Preterm Neonates: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Hua-Jian Hu, Pediatrics & neonatology, April 2017 To investigate whether probiotic supplementation could reduce the risk of fungal infection in preterm neonates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) The outcomes of interest were Candida colonization and invasive fungal sepsis. Seven trials involving 1371 preterm neonates were included. Limited data support that probiotic…

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Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Very Preterm Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Galderisi et al, Pediatrics, October 2017, VOLUME 140 / ISSUE 4 Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Impaired glucose control in very preterm infants is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and poor neurologic outcome. Strategies based on insulin titration have been unsuccessful in achieving euglycemia in absence of an increase in hypoglycemia and mortality.…

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Maternal and Placental Factors Associated with Congenital Hearing Loss in Very Preterm Neonates.

Kim et al, Pediatr Neonatol. 2017   BACKGROUND: Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a multifactorial disease that more frequently affects pretermnewborns. Although a number of maternal conditions have been reported to  be associated with preterm birth, little information is available concerning maternal risk factors for the development of SNHL. We aimed to identify maternaland placental risk factors associated with a “refer” result on the newborn hearing screening (NHS) test and subsequently confirmed SNHL in very preterm neonates.…

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Red Blood Cell Transfusion and Clinical Outcomes in Extremely Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

Wang et al, Pediatr Neonatol. 2017  Background Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is often considered a life-saving measure in critically ill neonates. The smallest and least mature  infants tend to receive the largest amount of transfusions. RBC transfusion itself has also been suggested as an independent risk facto r of poor…

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SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Infant Deaths: Updated 2016 Recommendations for a Safe Infant Sleeping Environment

TASK FORCE ON SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME Pediatrics, October 2016, From the American Academy of Pediatrics, Policy Statement Abstract Approximately 3500 infants die annually in the United  States from sleep-related infant deaths, including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS; International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision [ICD-10], R95), ill-defined deaths (ICD-10 R99), and accidental…

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Impact of the US Maternal Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccination Program on Preventing Pertussis in Infants <2 Months of Age: A Case-Control Evaluation

Skoff et al, Clinical Infectious Diseases, September 2017   Abstract Background Infants aged <1 year are at highest risk for pertussis-related morbidity and mortality. In 2012, Tdap (tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis) vaccine was recommended for women during each pregnancy to protect infants in the first months of life;…

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Risk of Autism Associated With Hyperbilirubinemia and Phototherapy

Wu et al, Pediatrics 2016 Abstract OBJECTIVE: Whether neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and/or phototherapy increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder(ASD) is unclear. We sought to quantify the risk of ASD associated with elevated total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels and with phototherapy. CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment for the effects of sociodemographic factors and birth weight, neither hyperbilirubinemia nor phototherapy was an…

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Assessing the neuroprotective benefits for babies of antenatal magnesium sulphate: An individual participant data meta-analysis.

Crowther et al, PLoS Med. 2017 Abstract BACKGROUND: Babies born preterm are at an increased risk of dying in the first weeks of life, and those who survive have a higher rate of cerebral palsy (CP) compared with babies born at term. The aim of this individual par ticipant data (IPD) meta-analysis (MA)…

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Systematic Review of the Effect of Enteral Feeding on Gut Microbiota in Preterm Infants

Xu et al, J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2017 Oct Abstract OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of feeding type on microbial patterns among preterm infants and to identify feeding factors that promote the colonization of beneficial bacteria. Conclusion: Mothers’ own milk is considered the best form of nutrition for preterm infants and the gut microbial…

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Late (> 7 days) systemic postnatal corticosteroids for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Oct, Doyle et al Abstract BACKGROUND: Many preterm infants who survive go on to develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia, probably as the result of persistent inflammation in the lun gs. Corticosteroids have powerful anti-inflammatory effects and have been used to treat individuals with established bronchopulmonary dysplasia. However, it is unclear whether any…

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Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist compared to other forms of triggered ventilation for neonatal respiratory support.

Rossor et al, Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Oct  Abstract BACKGROUND: Effective synchronisation of infant respiratory effort with mechanical ventilation may allow adequate gas exchange to occur at lower peak airway pressures, potentially reducing barotrauma and volutrauma and development of air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. During neurally adjusted ventilatory assist ventilation (NAVA),…

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Oesophageal eosinophilia in children with coeliac disease

Ari et al, Arch Dis Child. 2017 Apr 12 Abstract OBJECTIVES: An association between coeliac disease (CD) and eosinophilicoesophagitis(EoE)/oesophageal eosinophilia (EE) has been suggested.  Setting: Single large, tertiary paediatric centre. CONCLUSION: Patients with CD found to have EE share characteristics with both isolated CD and EoE. It appears that these are two coexisting entities presenting in the same…

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