Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Penicillins, Cephalosporins and Aminoglycosides in the Neonate: A Review


Pacifici, Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2010 Aug Abstract Bacterial infections are common in the neonates and are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Sixty percent of preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units received at least one antibiotic during the first week of life. Penicillins, aminoglycosides and cephalosporins comprised 53, 43 …

Continue reading

Gut bacteria dysbiosis and necrotising enterocolitis in very low birthweight infants: a prospective case-control study

A nurse gives a premature baby its soother under a phototherapy lamp, in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at the  Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal Monday August 13 2007.  (Tyrel Featherstone/THEGAZETTE)

Warner et al, Lancet.  2016 BACKGROUND: Gut bacteria might predispose to or protect from necrotising enterocolitis, a severe illness linked to prematurity. In this observational prospective study we aimed to assess whether one or more bacterial taxa in the gut differ between infants who subsequently develop necrotising enterocolitis (cases) and those …

Continue reading

Early High-Dose Caffeine Increases Seizure Burden in Extremely Preterm Neonates: A Preliminary Study


Vesoulis et al, Caffeine Res. 2016 Sep . AbstractBackground: Although evidence suggests that methylxanthines may lower the seizure threshold, the effect of high-dose caffeine on seizure burden in preterm infants is not known. This study reports a secondary post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial of early high-dose caffeine citrate …

Continue reading

Effect of obesity on neonatal outcomes in pregnancies with preterm premature rupture of membranes

Faucett et al, Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Feb Abstract BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is associated with increased systemic inflammation and an increased risk of preterm premature rupture of membranes. There is an established association between an inflammatory intrauterine environment and adverse neonatal outcomes that is independent of gestational age and mediated …

Continue reading

Quality of life at age 18 years after extremely preterm birth in the post-surfactant era


Roberts et al, J Pediatr. 2013 Abstract OBJECTIVES: To assess the self-reported quality of life, health status, self-esteem, and functional outcomes at age 18 years of extremely preterm (EP; <28 weeks gestation) or extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight <1000 g) adolescents born in 1991-1992 compared with normal birth weight (birth …

Continue reading

Is mode of delivery associated with the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis?


Son et al, Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Sep Abstract BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis remains poorly understood. Different newborn bacterial colonization due to cesarean delivery as opposed to vaginal delivery has been implicated as one potential contributing factor. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether mode of delivery is …

Continue reading

Kangaroo mother care to reduce morbidity and mortality in low birthweight infants.


Agudelo & Rossello, Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Aug 23; Abstract BACKGROUND: Kangaroo mother care (KMC), originally defined as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn, frequent and exclusive or nearly exclusive breastfeeding, and early discharge from hospital, has been proposed as an alternative to conventional neonatal care for low birthweight …

Continue reading

Mortality of Neonatal Respiratory Failure from Chinese Northwest NICU Network


Zhang et al, J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016 Sep  Abstract OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of respiratory support and surfactant in incidence, management and outcome of neonatal respiratory failure (NRF) in Chinese emerging regional neonatal-perinatal care system in the era of universal health insurance policy. RESULTS: Among …

Continue reading