Effect of Prophylactic Indomethacin in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants Based on the Predicted Risk of Severe Intraventricular Hemorrhage

Foglia et al, Neonatology 2018 Abstract Background: Prophylactic indomethacin reduces the risk of severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) but does not reduce death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) among extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Some investigators have suggested that prophylactic indomethacin may have a greater treatment effect on severe IVH among infants at high…

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Diagnosis and Management of Necrotizing Enterocolitis: An International Survey of Neonatologists and Pediatric Surgeons

Valpacos et al, Neonatology 2018 Abstract Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious complication of prematurity. Currently, there is limited evidence to guide investigation and treatment strategies.  Objectives: To evaluate the parameters used to diagnose or exclude NEC, and to identify differences between neonatologists and pediatric surgeons.  Conclusion: Results indicate a wide variation in…

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The Laryngeal Mask Airway and Its Use in Neonatal Resuscitation: A Critical Review of Where We Are in 2017/2018

Bansal et al, Neonatology 2018 Abstract Studies using videotape recordings and respiratory function monitoring have shown that both face mask (FM) application and endotracheal tube (ETT) placement represent a challenge for resuscitators. Hence, there is a strong need for devices that can largely be used independently of individual operator training levels,…

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Topical Coconut Oil in Very Preterm Infants: An Open-Label Randomised Controlled Trial

Strunk et al, Neonatology 2018 Abstract Background: The immature fragile skin of preterm infants represents an inadequate protective barrier. The emollient and anti-infective properties of coconut oil make it a potentially beneficial topical agent for this population.  Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate feasibility, safety, and the effects of topical coconut oil on…

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Early Use of Mother’s Own Raw Milk, Maternal Satisfaction, and Breastfeeding Continuation in Hospitalised Neonates: A Prospective Cohort Study

Fischer Fumeaux et al, Neonatology 2018 Abstract Background: Despite the critical importance of breast milk for preterm and sick neonates, there is no consensus regarding the use of raw mother’s own milk (MOM) in neonatal units.  Objectives:This study aimed to describe the use of raw MOM in hospitalised neonates before day 7…

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BMI Is a Better Body Proportionality Measure than the Ponderal Index and Weight-for-Length for Preterm Infants

Ferguson et al, Neonatology 2018 Abstract Background: Clinicians have observed preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit growing disproportionally; however, the only growth charts that have been available were from preterm infants born in the 1950s which utilized the ponderal index. Prior to creating the recently published BMI curves, we found only 1…

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Early Nutrition and Growth until the Corrected Age of 2 Years in Extremely Preterm Infants

Hiltunen et al, Neonatology 2018   Abstract Background: Extremely preterm birth is associated with a high risk of extrauterine growth retardation, which has been linked with adverse developmental outcomes.    Objective: We investigated whether nutritional management during the first 7 days of life affects growth patterns until the corrected age of 2 years…

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The Cerebellar-Cerebral Microstructure Is Disrupted at Multiple Sites in Very Preterm Infants with Cerebellar Haemorrhage

Neubauer et al, Neonatology 2018   Abstract Background:  Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have prompted reconsideration of the anatomical correlates of adverse outcomes in preterm infants. The importance of the contribution made by the cerebellum is now increasingly appreciated. The effect of cerebellar haemorrhage (CBH)on the microstructure of the…

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Hypoxemia Episodes during Day and Night and Their Impact on Oxygen Saturation Targeting in Mechanically Ventilated Preterm Infants

Neonatology 2018 Abstract Background: Hypoxemia episodes (HE) occur frequently in ventilated preterm infants and hinder the achievement of arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) targets. These episodes may increase the risk for retinopathy of prematurity and neurodevelopmental disability. There are no data on the variation in HE and SpO2 targeting between day…

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Efficacy of Antenatal Corticosteroid Treatment on Neurodevelopmental Outcome according to Head Circumference at Birth

Basset et al, Neonatology 2018 Abstract Background: There are concerns about the efficacy of antenatal corticosteroid treatment (ACT) in the growth-restricted fetus. Objective: To evaluate the effect of ACT on neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of corrected age according to the z score of birth head circumference (ZS HC) in…

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Temperature Probe Placement during Preterm Infant Resuscitation: A Randomised Trial

Bensouda et al, Neonatology 2018 Abstract Background: Hypothermia on admission to intensive care is associated with poor outcomes in preterm infants. The neonatal resuscitation program recommends the use of servo-control thermoregulation during resuscitation. Very little evidence exists to guide optimal temperature probe placement in the delivery room. Objective: The aim…

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The Impact of Maternal Gestational Hypertension and the Use of Anti-Hypertensives on Neonatal Myocardial Performance

Breatnach et al, Neonatology 2018 Abstract Background: Assessment of myocardial performance in neonates using advanced techniques such as deformation imaging and rotational mechanics has gained considerable interest. The applicability of these techniques for elucidating abnormal myocardial performance in various clinical scenarios is becoming established. We hypothesise that term infants born…

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First Trimester Vaginal Ureaplasma Biovar Colonization and Preterm Birth: Results of a Prospective Multicenter Study

Waldhoer et al, Neonatology 2018 Background: While there is a proven association of upper genital tract Ureaplasma infection during pregnancy with adverse pregnancy outcome, the effect of vaginal Ureaplasma colonization on preterm delivery has been controversially debated. Objectives: We hypothesized that women with isolation of vaginal U. parvum but not…

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Parenteral Nutrition in Critically Ill Children

Nilesh and Mehta, N Engl J Med 2016 Adequate nutrient delivery may help to offset the catabolic burden imposed by critical illness, preventing nutritional deterioration and improving outcomes. However, questions regarding the most appropriate dose of macronutrients, the route of delivery, and particularly the timing of supplemental parenteral nutrition in critically…

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Incidence of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis in high-income countries: a systematic review

Battersby et al, Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2018 Jan Abstract The early survival of preterm babies has increased in high-resource settings, and as a consequence, the number at risk of serious complications that commonly occur in the neonatal period, such as necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), is increasing. NEC is now one of the…

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Nasal High-Flow Therapy for Primary Respiratory Support in Preterm Infants

Roberts  et al, N Engl J Med. 2016 Sep  Abstract BACKGROUND: Treatment with nasal high-flow therapy has efficacy similar to that of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) when used as postextubation support in neonates. The efficacy of high-flow therapy as the primarymeans of respiratory support for preterm infants with respiratory distress has not been proved.   CONCLUSIONS: When used as primary support for preterm infants with respiratory distress, high-flow therapy resulted in a significantly higher rate of treatment failure than did…

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Benefits and Risks of Antiretroviral Therapy for Perinatal HIV Prevention

Fowler et al, N Engl J Med. 2016 Nov   Abstract BACKGROUND: Randomized-trial data on the risks and benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) as compared with zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine to prevent transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in HIV-infected pregnant women with high CD4 counts are lacking. CONCLUSIONS: Antenatal ART resulted in significantly lower rates of early HIV transmission than…

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Survival and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes among Periviable Infants

Younge et al, N Engl J Med. 2017 Feb Abstract BACKGROUND: Data reported during the past 5 years indicate that rates of survival have increased among infants born at the borderline of viability, but less is known about how increased rates of survival among these infants relate to early childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes.   CONCLUSIONS: The rate of survival without neurodevelopmental impairment increased between 2000 and 2011 in this…

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 “عظماء أبو الريش الراحلون من ظلمات صندوق النسيان إلى أضواء المعرفة والعرفان”

  السيدات والسادة الزملاء الأفاضل السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته،،،  وفاء للوعد الذى قطعه عل نفسه ا.د. صلاح نصار الأستاذ المتفرغ بقسم طب الأطفال بكلية طب قصر العينى – جامعة القاهرة، والخادم العاشق فى محراب “البيت الكبير”، فقد وفقنا الله سبحانه وتعالى، إلى وضع استرتيجية، وأهداف وخطة تنفيذ الكتاب، الذى…

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Ventilation in Extremely Preterm Infants and Respiratory Function at 8 Years

Doyle et al, N Engl J Med. 2017 Jul BACKGROUND: Assisted ventilation for extremely preterm infants (<28 weeks of gestation) has become less invasive, but it is unclear whether such developments in care are associated with improvemen ts in short-term or long-term lung function. We compared changes over time in the use of assisted ventilation and oxygen therapy…

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Delayed versus Immediate Cord Clamping in Preterm Infants

Tarnow-Mordi W et al, N Engl J Med. 2017 Dec BACKGROUND The preferred timing of umbilical-cord clamping in preterm infants is unclear.  METHODS The primary composite outcome was death or major morbidity (defined as severe brain injury on postnatal ultrasonography, severe retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis, or late-onset sepsis) by 36 weeks…

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Long-Term Effects of Inhaled Budesonide for Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

Bassler et at, N Engl J Med. 2018 Jan BACKGROUND : The long-term effects on neurodevelopment of the use of inhaled glucocorticoids in extremely preterm infants for the prevention or treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia are uncertain.  CONCLUSIONS   Among surviving extremely preterm infants, the rate of neurodevelopmental disability at 2 years did…

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