Maternal and Placental Factors Associated with Congenital Hearing Loss in Very Preterm Neonates.

Kim et al, Pediatr Neonatol. 2017   BACKGROUND: Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a multifactorial disease that more frequently affects pretermnewborns. Although a number of maternal conditions have been reported to  be associated with preterm birth, little information is available concerning maternal risk factors for the development of SNHL. We aimed to identify maternaland placental risk factors associated with a “refer” result on the newborn hearing screening (NHS) test and subsequently confirmed SNHL in very preterm neonates.…

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Red Blood Cell Transfusion and Clinical Outcomes in Extremely Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

Wang et al, Pediatr Neonatol. 2017  Background Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is often considered a life-saving measure in critically ill neonates. The smallest and least mature  infants tend to receive the largest amount of transfusions. RBC transfusion itself has also been suggested as an independent risk facto r of poor…

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SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Infant Deaths: Updated 2016 Recommendations for a Safe Infant Sleeping Environment

TASK FORCE ON SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME Pediatrics, October 2016, From the American Academy of Pediatrics, Policy Statement Abstract Approximately 3500 infants die annually in the United  States from sleep-related infant deaths, including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS; International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision [ICD-10], R95), ill-defined deaths (ICD-10 R99), and accidental…

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Impact of the US Maternal Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccination Program on Preventing Pertussis in Infants <2 Months of Age: A Case-Control Evaluation

Skoff et al, Clinical Infectious Diseases, September 2017   Abstract Background Infants aged <1 year are at highest risk for pertussis-related morbidity and mortality. In 2012, Tdap (tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis) vaccine was recommended for women during each pregnancy to protect infants in the first months of life;…

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Risk of Autism Associated With Hyperbilirubinemia and Phototherapy

Wu et al, Pediatrics 2016 Abstract OBJECTIVE: Whether neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and/or phototherapy increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder(ASD) is unclear. We sought to quantify the risk of ASD associated with elevated total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels and with phototherapy. CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment for the effects of sociodemographic factors and birth weight, neither hyperbilirubinemia nor phototherapy was an…

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Assessing the neuroprotective benefits for babies of antenatal magnesium sulphate: An individual participant data meta-analysis.

Crowther et al, PLoS Med. 2017 Abstract BACKGROUND: Babies born preterm are at an increased risk of dying in the first weeks of life, and those who survive have a higher rate of cerebral palsy (CP) compared with babies born at term. The aim of this individual par ticipant data (IPD) meta-analysis (MA)…

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Systematic Review of the Effect of Enteral Feeding on Gut Microbiota in Preterm Infants

Xu et al, J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2017 Oct Abstract OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of feeding type on microbial patterns among preterm infants and to identify feeding factors that promote the colonization of beneficial bacteria. Conclusion: Mothers’ own milk is considered the best form of nutrition for preterm infants and the gut microbial…

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Late (> 7 days) systemic postnatal corticosteroids for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Oct, Doyle et al Abstract BACKGROUND: Many preterm infants who survive go on to develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia, probably as the result of persistent inflammation in the lun gs. Corticosteroids have powerful anti-inflammatory effects and have been used to treat individuals with established bronchopulmonary dysplasia. However, it is unclear whether any…

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Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist compared to other forms of triggered ventilation for neonatal respiratory support.

Rossor et al, Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Oct  Abstract BACKGROUND: Effective synchronisation of infant respiratory effort with mechanical ventilation may allow adequate gas exchange to occur at lower peak airway pressures, potentially reducing barotrauma and volutrauma and development of air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. During neurally adjusted ventilatory assist ventilation (NAVA),…

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Oesophageal eosinophilia in children with coeliac disease

Ari et al, Arch Dis Child. 2017 Apr 12 Abstract OBJECTIVES: An association between coeliac disease (CD) and eosinophilicoesophagitis(EoE)/oesophageal eosinophilia (EE) has been suggested.  Setting: Single large, tertiary paediatric centre. CONCLUSION: Patients with CD found to have EE share characteristics with both isolated CD and EoE. It appears that these are two coexisting entities presenting in the same…

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Update on Postnatal Steroids.

Halliday, Neonatology. 2017 Abstract Antenatal steroid treatment to enhance fetal lung maturity and surfactant treatment to prevent or treat respiratory distress syndrome have been major advances in perinatal medicine in the past 40 years contributing to improved outcomes for preterm infants. Use of postnatal steroids to prevent or treat chronic…

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Umbilical Venous Catheter Malposition Is Associated with Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Premature Infants.

Sulemanji et al, Neonatology, 2017 Abstract OBJECTIVE: The etiology of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains elusive despite known associations with several factors, including intestinal ischemia related to the effects of umbilical arterial catheterization on the mesenteric circulation. However, the role of the mesenteric venous circulation has yet to be studied as a potential…

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Surfactant Need by Gestation for Very Preterm Babies Initiated on Early Nasal CPAP: A Danish Observational Multicentre Study of 6,628 Infants Born 2000-2013.

Wiingreen et al, Neonatology, 2017 Abstract BACKGROUND: In recent years, early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) as respiratory support for preterm infants is being advocated as an alternative to prophylactic surfactant and treatment with mechanical ventilation. A number of infants treated with early nCPAP do not need treatment with surfactant, but…

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Use of Transcutaneous Bilirubin to Determine the Need for Phototherapy in Resource-Limited Settings.

Olusanya and Emokpae, Neonatology. 2017  Abstract BACKGROUND: Routine and timely determination of total serum bilirubin (TSB) remains a challenge in many resource-limited countries with substantial burden of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Limited evidence exists on the potential usefulness of transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) to identify infants who may require phototherapy based on possible treatment…

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Medications That Increase Osmolality and Compromise the Safety of Enteral Feeding in Preterm Infants

Chandran et al, Neonatology, 2017  Abstract BACKGROUND: Medications added to preterm milk feeds have the potential to raise osmolality, causing feed intolerance and necrotizing enterocolitis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the osmolality of milk feeds and water with 14 medications and the diluent amounts required to…

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The Effect of Head Positioning and Head Tilting on the Incidence of Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Very Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review

Bijl-Marcus, et al, Neonatology 2017 Abstract Background: Despite advances in neonatal intensive care, germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) remains a frequent, serious complication of premature birth. Neutral head position and head tilting have been suggested to reduce the risk of GMH-IVH in preterm infants during the first 72 h of life.…

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Smell and Taste to Improve Nutrition in Very Preterm Infants: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

Beker et al, Neonatology, 2017 Abstract Background: The perception of smell and taste, though present early in development, is not routinely considered in the care of preterm infants. Smell and taste are known to increase gut motility, insulin secretion, and the release of appetite, digestive and metabolic hormones. Objective: We…

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Randomized Trial to Compare Renal Function and Ductal Response between Indomethacin and Ibuprofen Treatment in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

Lin et al, Neonatology, 2017 Abstract Background: A head to head comparison study on renal function and ductal response between indomethacin and ibuprofen has rarely been conducted in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Objectives: The aim was to compare renal function and ductal response between indomethacin and ibuprofen in…

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Supplemental Iodide for Preterm Infants and Developmental Outcomes at 2 Years: An RCT

Williams et al, Pediatrics, May 2017 Abstract BACKGROUND: The recommendation for enteral iodide intake for preterm infants is 30 to 40 μg/kg per day and 1 μg/kg per day for parenteral intake. Preterm infants are vulnerable to iodide insufficiency and thyroid dysfunction. The hypothesis tested whether, compared with placebo, iodide supplementation of…

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