Supraventricular tachycardia after nebulized salbutamol therapy in a neonate: case report

Say et al, Arch Argent Pediatr. 2015 Apr;  Abstract Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is the most common sustained arrhythmia in neonates and infants. Presentation of SVT in the neonate is usually subtle and frequently complicated by congestive heart failure. Despite the widespread use of β2-agonists, their safety has been questioned. Several studies have reported an increased incidence…

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The effect of erythropoietin on the severity of retinopathy of prematurity.

Kandasamy, Eye (Lond). 2014 July Abstract Exogenous human erythropoietin (EPO) artificially synthesised through recombinant DNA technology (rHuEPO) is currently used as a substitute for blood transfusion in preterm and low birth weight neonates. The objective of this study is to determine whether the use of rHuEPO is associated with an increased severity of retinopathy…

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Prophylactic systemic antifungal agents to prevent mortality and morbidity in very low birth weight infants

Cleminson, et al, Sept 2015 The Cochrane Library Abstract Background Invasive fungal infection is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in very preterm and very low birth weight infants. Early diagnosis is difficult and treatment is often delayed. Systemically absorbed antifungal agents (usually azoles) are increasingly used as prophylaxis…

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Effect of fluconazole prophylaxis on candidiasis and mortality in premature infants: a randomized clinical trial.

Benjamin et al, JAMA. 2014 May Abstract IMPORTANCE: Invasive candidiasis in premature infants causes death and neurodevelopmental impairment. Fluconazole prophylaxis reduces candidiasis, but its effect on mortality and the safety of fluconazole are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fluconazole in preventing death or invasive candidiasis in extremely low-birth-weight infants. Among infants with a…

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Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antibacterials, antifungals, and antivirals used most frequently in neonates and infants.

Roberts ,et al, Clin Pharmacokinet. 2014 Jul Abstract Antimicrobials and antivirals are widely used in young infants and neonates. β-Lactam antibacterial activity is maximized when the plasma concentration exceeds the minimum inhibitory concentration for a prolonged period, suggesting that more frequent dosing may optimize β-lactam therapy. Aminoglycosides are typically administered at longer…

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Pharmacological Therapy of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Preterm Infants

Corvaglia et al, Gastroenterology Research and Practice, Volume 2013 (2013) Abstract Although gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a very common phenomenon among preterm infants, its therapeutic management is still an issue of debate among neonatologists. A step-wise approach should be advisable, firstly promoting nonpharmacological interventions and limiting drugs to selected infants unresponsive to the conservative…

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Ranitidine is associated with infections, necrotizing enterocolitis, and fatal outcome in newborns

Terrin et al, Pediatrics, 2012 Gastric acidity is a major nonimmune defense mechanism against infections. The objective of this study was to investigate whether ranitidine treatment in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is associated with an increased risk of infections, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and fatal outcome. RESULTS: We evaluated 274 VLBW…

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Postnatal phenobarbital for the prevention of intraventricular haemorrhage in preterm infants

Smit et al, 2013, Cochrane neonatology group Intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) is a major complication of preterm birth. Large haemorrhages are associated with a high risk of disability and hydrocephalus. Instability of blood pressure and cerebral blood flow are postulated as causative factors. Another mechanism may involve reperfusion damage from oxygen…

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A propensity-matched cohort study of vancomycin-associated nephrotoxicity in neonates

Constance et al, Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2015 Sep 23.  BACKGROUND: The incidence of nephrotoxicity among vancomycin-treated neonates has been reported to range from 2% to 20%. These widely varying estimates have led to confusion and controversy regarding the safety of vancomycin among neonates. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the incidence of nephrotoxicity among neonates receiving vancomycin concomitantly…

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