11 March 2015, Updated Chocrane review
In preterm newborns, the ductus arteriosus frequently fails to close and the infants require medical or surgical closure of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). A PDA can be treated surgically or medically with one of two prostaglandin inhibitors, indomethacin or ibuprofen. Case reports suggest that paracetamol may be an alternative for the closure of a PDA. Concerns have been raised that in neonatal mice paracetamol may cause adverse effects on the developing brain, and an association between prenatal exposure to paracetamol and later development of autism or autism spectrum disorder has been reported.
To determine the efficacy and safety of intravenous or oral paracetamol compared with placebo or no intervention, intravenous indomethacin, intravenous or oral ibuprofen, or with other cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors for closure of a PDA in preterm or low-birth-weight infants.
Although a limited number of infants with a PDA have been studied in randomised trials of low to moderate quality according to GRADE, oral paracetamol appears to be as effective in closing a PDA as oral ibuprofen. In view of a recent report in mice of adverse effects on the developing brain from paracetamol, and another report of an association between prenatal paracetamol and the development of autism or autism spectrum disorder in childhood, long-term follow-up to at least 18 to 24 months postnatal age must be incorporated in any studies of paracetamol in the newborn population. Such trials are required before any recommendations for the use of paracetamol in the newborn population can be made.