Total Duration of Breastfeeding, Vitamin D Supplementation, and Serum Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D

Darmawikarta et al, Am J Public Health. 2016 Apr


To determine the association between total breastfeeding duration and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and to explore whethervitamin D supplementation influences this association.


Each 1-month increase in total breastfeeding duration was associated with a 0.12 nanograms per milliliter lower median serum 25-OHD (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.21 ng/mL, -0.02 ng/mL) among children who were not supplemented. The odds of serum 25-OHD less than 20 nanograms per milliliter increased by 6% (odds ratio [OR] = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.10) for every 1-month increase in total breastfeeding durationamong nonsupplemented children. The interaction between vitamin D supplementation, duration of breastfeeding, and median serum 25-OHD was statistically significant (P = .04).


Breastfed children who were not supplemented, particularly those breastfed more than 1 year, appear to have lower vitamin Dstatus. Vitamin D supplementation may mitigate this risk. These findings support recommendations for supplementation during breastfeeding of anyduration.