Risk Factors for Extubation Failure in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants.

Wang et al, Pediatr Neonatol. 2016 Jun 7.


BACKGROUND: Although antenatal steroids and early use nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) have significantly improved outcomes of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, intubation with ventilator support is still commonly required in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. The optimal timing of extubation in ELBW infants remains unclear.

RESULTS:In total, 173 ELBW infants were born and admitted to our NICU during these 5 years. Among these 173 infants, 77 (44.5%) used NCPAP only during their hospitalization (20 diagnosed with chronic lung disease (CLD), 25.9%). Among the 95 patients that required intubation, 27 patients expired so extubation was not attempted. Sixteen of 68 (23.5%) survival cases required reintubation within 7 days after extubation. We found that gestational age, birth body weight, and sex ratio did not differ between the successful extubation group and the failed extubation group. 

CONCLUSION: This study shows that nearly half of ELBW infants do not require intubation. Among ELBW infants who require invasive ventilator support, those who have lower postextubation arterial pH and bicarbonate levels are at high risk of extubation failure.