Early Caffeine Administration and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Preterm Infants

Lod­ha et al, Pedi­atrics. 2018 Dec BACKGROUND: Although caf­feine use for apnea of pre­ma­tu­ri­ty is well stud­ied, the long-term safe­ty and ben­e­fit of rou­tine ear­ly caf­feine admin­is­tra­tion has not been explored. Our objec­tive was to deter­mine the asso­ci­a­tion between ear­ly (with­in 2 days of birth) ver­sus late caf­feine expo­sure and neu­rode­vel­op­men­tal out­comes…

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Behavioral problems are associated with cognitive and language scores in toddlers born extremely preterm

Lowe et al, Ear­ly Hum Dev. 2018 Dec OBJECTIVE:To eval­u­ate the rela­tion­ship of par­ent-report­ed child behav­iors on the Child Behav­ior Check­list (CBCL) to cog­ni­tion, lan­guage, and motor skills on the Bay­ley Scales of Infant and Tod­dler Devel­op­ment — III (Bay­ley-III) in tod­dlers born extreme­ly preterm. This study showed that par­ent report­ed behav­ior prob­lems were…

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Neonatal interventions for preventing cerebral palsy

Salam et al, Cochrane Sys­tem­at­ic Review.20 June 2018 Back­ground Cere­bral pal­sy is an umbrel­la term that encom­pass­es dis­or­ders of move­ment and pos­ture attrib­uted to non‐progressive dis­tur­bances occur­ring in the devel­op­ing foetal or infant brain. As there are diverse risk fac­tors and aeti­olo­gies, no one strat­e­gy will pre­vent cere­bral pal­sy. There­fore, there…

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Update on Vitamin E and Its Potential Role in Preventing or Treating Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

Stone et al, Neona­tol­ogy, 2018 Abstract Vit­a­min E is obtained only through the diet and has a num­ber of impor­tant bio­log­i­cal activ­i­ties, includ­ing func­tion­ing as an antiox­i­dant. Evi­dence that free rad­i­cals may con­tribute to patho­log­i­cal process­es such as bron­chopul­monary dys­pla­sia (BPD), a dis­ease of pre­ma­tu­ri­ty asso­ci­at­ed with increased lung injury,…

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The Neuroprotective Effects of Hypothermia on Bilirubin-Induced Neurotoxicity in vitro

Kuter et al, Neona­tol­ogy, 2018 Back­ground: In high-risk new­borns indi­rect hyper­biliru­bine­mia can lead to acute biliru­bin encephalopa­thy and ker­nicterus. Despite the cur­rent ther­a­peu­tic modal­i­ties, pre­vent­ing or revers­ing the neu­ro­tox­i­c­i­ty can­not be achieved in all infants. Objec­tive: To inves­ti­gate the neu­ro­pro­tec­tive effects of hypother­mia on biliru­bin-induced tox­i­c­i­ty in pri­ma­ry mouse neu­ronal…

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Newborn Plasma Glucose Concentration Nadirs by Gestational-Age Group

Kaiser et al, Neona­tol­ogy, 2018 Abstract Back­ground: The glu­cose con­cen­tra­tions and times to nadir for new­borns of all ges­ta­tion­al ages when intra­partum glu­cose-con­tain­ing solu­tions are not rou­tine­ly pro­vid­ed are unknown. Objec­tive: To char­ac­ter­ize and com­pare pat­terns of ini­tial glu­cose con­cen­tra­tion nadirs by ges­ta­tion­al-age groups. Meth­ods: A cross-sec­tion­al cohort study of…

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Enteral Feeding as an Adjunct to Hypothermia in Neonates with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

Chang et al, Neona­tol­ogy 2018 Abstract Back­ground: With­hold­ing enter­al feed­ings dur­ing hypother­mia lacks sup­port­ing evi­dence. Objec­tives: We aimed to deter­mine if min­i­mal enter­al nutri­tion (MEN) dur­ing hypother­mia in patients with hypox­ic-ischemic encephalopa­thy was asso­ci­at­ed with a reduced dura­tion of par­enter­al nutri­tion, time to full oral feeds, and length of stay,…

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High-Dose Erythropoietin for Asphyxia and Encephalopathy (HEAL): A Randomized Controlled Trial – Background, Aims, and Study Protocol

Juul et al, Neona­tol­ogy 2018 Abstract Back­ground: Hypox­ic-ischemic encephalopa­thy (HIE) remains an impor­tant cause of neona­tal death and fre­quent­ly leads to sig­nif­i­cant long-term dis­abil­i­ty in sur­vivors. Ther­a­peu­tic hypother­mia, while ben­e­fi­cial, still leaves many treat­ed infants with life­long dis­abil­i­ties. Adjunc­tive ther­a­pies are need­ed, and ery­thro­poi­etin (Epo) has the poten­tial to pro­vide…

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Vitamin D and Its Role in Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury

Stess­man & Peeples, Neona­tol­ogy 2018 Abstract Emerg­ing evi­dence has demon­strat­ed that vit­a­min D plays an impor­tant role in many adult neu­ro­log­ic dis­or­ders, but is also crit­i­cal in neu­ronal devel­op­ment and prun­ing in the neona­tal and pedi­atric pop­u­la­tions. Neonates are at a par­tic­u­lar­ly high risk of vit­a­min D defi­cien­cy, in part due…

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High-Flow Nasal Cannula versus Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for Primary Respiratory Support in Preterm Infants with Respiratory Distress: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Mur­ki et al, Neona­tol­ogy 2018  Abstract Background:Nasal con­tin­u­ous pos­i­tive air­way pres­sure (nCPAP) is the stan­dard non­in­va­sive res­pi­ra­to­ry sup­port for new­borns with res­pi­ra­to­ry dis­tress. Evi­dence for high-flow nasal can­nu­la (HFNC) as an alter­na­tive mode of res­pi­ra­to­ry sup­port is incon­clu­sive. Objec­tive: The aim of this work was to eval­u­ate whether HFNC is not infe­ri­or…

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