Body Composition in Very Preterm Infants: Role of Neonatal Characteristics and Nutrition in Achieving Growth Similar to Term Infants

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Tremblay et al, Neonatology 2017 Abstract Background: The identification of factors involved in the postnatal growth of preterm infants will help achieve growth similar to that of term infants. Objectives: As per protocol: to compare body composition in very preterm infants at term-corrected age (TCA) with that in term infants, and …

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Vitamin D for the management of asthma.

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Martineau et al, Cochrane Review, September 2016 Abstract Background: Several clinical trials of vitamin D to prevent asthma exacerbation and improve asthma control have been conducted in children and adults, but a meta-analysis restricted to double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trials of this intervention is lacking. Authors’ conclusions: Whilst we are confident that Vitamin D reduced …

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Association Between Early Low-Dose Hydrocortisone Therapy in Extremely Preterm Neonates and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 2 Years of Age

Baud et al,  JAMA. 2017 Dexamethasone to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia in very preterm neonates was associated with adverse neurodevelopmental events. Early low-dose hydrocortisone treatment has been reported to improve survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia but its safety with regard to neurodevelopment remains to be assessed. In an exploratory analysis of secondary …

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Bacteremia in Children 3 to 36 Months Old After Introduction of Conjugated Pneumococcal Vaccines

Greenhow et al, Pediatrics, March 2017 Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In June 2010, Kais er Permanente Northern California replaced all 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) vaccines with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Our objectives were to compare the incidence of bacteremia in children 3 to 36 months old by 3 …

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Increasing ED Use of Jet Injection of Lidocaine for IV-Related Pain Management

Jain et al, Pediatrics, March 2017 Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Venipuncture is a leading cause of procedural pain for children. Jet injection of lidocaine (JIL; J-Tip) has been demonstrated to be effective in controlling intravenous (IV) placement–related pain and, due to its rapid onset, is particularly suited to emergency department (ED) use. …

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Diet diversity, growth and adiposity in healthy breastfed infants fed homemade complementary foods

Mok et al, International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, March 2017 Background/Objectives: Infant complementary feeding is important for establishing food preferences. Few studies exist on the effects of infant complementary feeding choices (food preparation methods) on dietary intake, growth or adiposity. We examined whether provision of homemade complementary food is …

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The Role of Hydrocortisone in the Management of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

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Monds, Pediatr Pharm. 2016; Although the clinical landscape of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) has shifted over the years, BPD remains the most common form of chronic lung disease in infants. Historically BPD was seen in preterm infants who had suffered vasotrauma from aggressive mechanical ventilation. With advancements in medical care and the resultant survival …

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A Clinical Prediction Rule for Rebound Hyperbilirubinemia Following Inpatient Phototherapy

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Chang et al, Pediatrics, February 2017 Abstract OBJECTIVES: The American Academy of Pediatrics provides little guidance on when to discontinue phototherapy in newborns treated for hyperbilirubinemia. We sought to develop a prediction rule to estimate the probability of rebound hyperbilirubinemia after inpatient phototherapy. METHODS: Subjects for this retrospective cohort study were …

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