SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Infant Deaths: Updated 2016 Recommendations for a Safe Infant Sleeping Environment

TASK FORCE ON SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME Pediatrics, October 2016, From the American Academy of Pediatrics, Policy Statement Abstract Approximately 3500 infants die annually in the United  States from sleep-related infant deaths, including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS; International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision [ICD-10], R95), ill-defined deaths (ICD-10 R99), and accidental…

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Impact of the US Maternal Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccination Program on Preventing Pertussis in Infants <2 Months of Age: A Case-Control Evaluation

Skoff et al, Clinical Infectious Diseases, September 2017   Abstract Background Infants aged <1 year are at highest risk for pertussis-related morbidity and mortality. In 2012, Tdap (tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis) vaccine was recommended for women during each pregnancy to protect infants in the first months of life;…

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Risk of Autism Associated With Hyperbilirubinemia and Phototherapy

Wu et al, Pediatrics 2016 Abstract OBJECTIVE: Whether neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and/or phototherapy increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder(ASD) is unclear. We sought to quantify the risk of ASD associated with elevated total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels and with phototherapy. CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment for the effects of sociodemographic factors and birth weight, neither hyperbilirubinemia nor phototherapy was an…

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Assessing the neuroprotective benefits for babies of antenatal magnesium sulphate: An individual participant data meta-analysis.

Crowther et al, PLoS Med. 2017 Abstract BACKGROUND: Babies born preterm are at an increased risk of dying in the first weeks of life, and those who survive have a higher rate of cerebral palsy (CP) compared with babies born at term. The aim of this individual par ticipant data (IPD) meta-analysis (MA)…

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Systematic Review of the Effect of Enteral Feeding on Gut Microbiota in Preterm Infants

Xu et al, J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2017 Oct Abstract OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of feeding type on microbial patterns among preterm infants and to identify feeding factors that promote the colonization of beneficial bacteria. Conclusion: Mothers’ own milk is considered the best form of nutrition for preterm infants and the gut microbial…

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Late (> 7 days) systemic postnatal corticosteroids for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Oct, Doyle et al Abstract BACKGROUND: Many preterm infants who survive go on to develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia, probably as the result of persistent inflammation in the lun gs. Corticosteroids have powerful anti-inflammatory effects and have been used to treat individuals with established bronchopulmonary dysplasia. However, it is unclear whether any…

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Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist compared to other forms of triggered ventilation for neonatal respiratory support.

Rossor et al, Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Oct  Abstract BACKGROUND: Effective synchronisation of infant respiratory effort with mechanical ventilation may allow adequate gas exchange to occur at lower peak airway pressures, potentially reducing barotrauma and volutrauma and development of air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. During neurally adjusted ventilatory assist ventilation (NAVA),…

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Oesophageal eosinophilia in children with coeliac disease

Ari et al, Arch Dis Child. 2017 Apr 12 Abstract OBJECTIVES: An association between coeliac disease (CD) and eosinophilicoesophagitis(EoE)/oesophageal eosinophilia (EE) has been suggested.  Setting: Single large, tertiary paediatric centre. CONCLUSION: Patients with CD found to have EE share characteristics with both isolated CD and EoE. It appears that these are two coexisting entities presenting in the same…

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