Brief Resolved Unexplained Events (Formerly Apparent Life-Threatening Events) and Evaluation of Lower-Risk Infants

Pediatrics, April 2016, From the American Academy of Pediatrics, Clinical Practice Guideline This is the first clinical practice guideline from the American Academy of Pediatrics that specifically applies to patients who have experienced an apparent life-threatening event (ALTE). This clinical practice guideline has 3 objectives. First, it recommends the replacement of the…

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Early removal versus expectant management of central venous catheters in newborn infants with bloodstream infection

Vasudevan et al, 20 April 2016,Cochrane review Review question: In newborn infants with a bloodstream infection who have a central venous catheter in place, does early removal of the catheter reduce the riskof complications, including death and long-term disability? Background: Infection in the bloodstream is a frequent and harmful complication for newborn infants who have a central venous catheter (a cannula that extends several…

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Urinary Intestinal Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Can Distinguish Necrotizing Enterocolitis fromSepsis in Early Stage of the Disease.

Coufal et al, Immunol Res. 2016 Abstract Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is severe disease of gastrointestinal tract, yet its early symptoms are nonspecific, easily interchangeable with sepsis. Therefore, reliable biomarkers for early diagnostics are needed in clinical practice. Here, we analyzed if markers of gut mucosa damage, caspase cleaved cytokeratin 18 (ccCK18)…

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Oral immunoglobulin for preventing necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm and low birth weight neonates

Foster JP, Cole MJ, Seth R, 4 April 2016, Cochrane review Review question: Does the use of oral immunoglobulin reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and other complications in preterm or low birth weight (or both) neonates? Background: Immunoglobulin given orally for preventing emergency intestinal problems (necrotizing enterocolitis) in premature and low birth weight newborn infants. Destructive inflammation…

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Risk Factors for Neurotoxicity in Newborns With Severe Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia

Rasha Gamaleldin, Iman Iskander, Iman Seoud, Hanan Aboraya, Aleksandr Aravkin, Paul D. Sampson, Richard P. Wennberg, Pediatrics, October 2011, VOLUME 128 / ISSUE 4   Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the importance of total serum bilirubin (TSB) and neurotoxicity risk factors in predicting acute bilirubin encephalopathy (ABE) at admission or posttreatment bilirubin encephalopathy (BE) in infants with severe hyperbilirubinemia.…

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The effects of inhaled albuterol in transient tachypnea of the newborn

Kim et al, Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2014 Mar; Abstract PURPOSE: Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) is a disorder caused by the delayed clearance of fetal alveolar fluid. β-adrenergic agonists such as albuterol (salbutamol) are known to catalyze lung fluid absorption. This study examined whether inhalational salbutamol therapy could improve clinical symptoms in TTN.…

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Effects of ventilation on hearing loss in preterm neonates: Nasal continuous positive pressure does not increase the risk of hearing loss in ventilated neonates

Rastogi et al, Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2013 Mar Abstract INTRODUCTION: There is increased risk of hearing loss in preterm neonates. This risk is further increased by environmental noise exposure especially from life support equipment such as ventilation. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) used for respiratory support of preterm neonates is…

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Short Maternal Stature Increases Risk of Small-for-Gestational-Age and Preterm Births in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis and Population Attributable Fraction. Kozuki et al, J Nutr. 2015 BACKGROUND: Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and preterm births are associated with adverse health consequences, including neonatal andinfant mortality, childhood undernutrition, and adulthood chronic disease. OBJECTIVES: The specific aims of this study were to estimate the association between short maternal stature and outcomes of…

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Patient-to-nurse ratios and outcomes of moderately preterm infants.

Profit et al, Pediatrics. 2010 Feb; Abstract OBJECTIVE: Moderately preterm infants (30-34(6/7) weeks’ gestational age) represent the largest population of NICU residents. Whether their clinical outcomes are associated with differences in NICU nurse-staffing arrangements has not been assessed. The objective of this study was to test the influence of patient-to-nurse…

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Lung Function at 8 and 16 Years After Moderate-to-Late Preterm Birth: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Thunqvist et al, Pediatrics. 2016 Mar  Knowledge regarding lung function after moderately preterm birth is limited. We therefore investigated lung function at early school age and adolescence among children born moderately preterm. RESULTS: At age 8 years, adjusted forced expiratory volume in 1 second was lower in preterm female subjects…

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Impact of antenatal steroids on intraventricular hemorrhage in very-low-birth weight infants.

Wei et al, J Perinatol. 2016 Mar 24. Abstract OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between antenatal steroids administration and intraventricular hemorrhage rates. RESULTS: In 25 979 very-low-birth weight infants, antenatal steroid use was associated with a reduction in incidence of any grade of intraventricular hemorrhage (odds ratio=0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.62,…

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Fish oil supplementation improves pregnancy outcomes and size of the newborn: a meta-analysis of 21 randomized controlled trials.

Chen et al, J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016 Jun Abstract OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of fish oil on related pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies comprising 10 802 pregnant women were included. Dietary fish oil was associated with a 5.8-day increase in gestational age of the newborn, a 22% reduced…

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Predictors of Breastfeeding Initiation and Frequency for Preterm Infants in the NICU.

Vilen et al, J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2016 Mar  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To determine factors that predict the initiation and frequency of breastfeeding, attitudes about breastfeeding, and the self-efficacy of mothers of preterm infants in a neonatal intensive care unit. RESULTS: Preterm infants initiated breastfeeding at the median postnatal age…

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Neonatal risk factors of atopic dermatitis in Denmark – results from a nationwide register based study.

Egeberg etal, Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2016 Mar 7 Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with a multifactorial etiopathogenesis. Studies have suggested that several perinatal factors may influence the risk of AD in early childhood. We investigated possible neonatal risk factors such as jaundice, blue light phototherapy, birth weight,…

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Reducing pain during vaccine injections: clinical practice guideline

 Anna Taddio et al, CMAJ 2015.  Clinicians who administer vaccines can take a series of proactive actions, including shuffling the order of injections, leveraging the calming influence of parents and breast-feeding, and routinely applying topical anesthetic, to alleviate pain for patients of all ages, according to a new clinical practice guideline.…

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Estimating umbilical catheter insertion depth in newborns using weight or body measurement: a randomised trial

 Kieran et al, Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal 2014  Abstract Objective Incorrectly positioned umbilical venous and arterial catheters (UVC and UAC) are associated with increased rates of complications in newborns. Catheter insertion depth is often estimated using body surface measurement. We wished to determine whether estimating insertion depth of umbilical catheters…

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Preterm Birth and Poor Fetal Growth as Risk Factors of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Sucksdorff, et al, Pediatrics, August, 2015 Abstract BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown an association between prematurity and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results concerning late preterm infants are controversial, and studies examining fetal growth represented by weight for gestational age are scarce. Our objective was to examine the association between gestational age…

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A Randomized Trial of Phototherapy with Filtered Sunlight in African Neonates

Slusher, et al, N Engl J Med 2015 BACKGROUND Sequelae of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia constitute a substantial disease burden in areas where effective conventional phototherapy is unavailable. We previously found that the use of filtered sunlight for the purpose of phototherapy is a safe and efficacious method for reducing total bilirubin. However,…

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Mental performance in 8-year-old children fed reduced protein content formula during the 1st year of life: safety analysis of a randomised clinical trial.

Escribano et al, Br J Nutr. 2016 Jan In humans, maximum brain development occurs between the third trimester of gestation and 2 years of life. Nutrition during these critical windows of rapid brain development might be essential for later cognitive functioning and behaviour. In the last few years, trends on protein recommendations during infancy…

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