Pertussis Antibody Concentrations in Infants Born Prematurely to Mothers Vaccinated in Pregnancy

Kent et al, Pedi­atrics, June. 2016 Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mater­nal ante­na­tal per­tus­sis-con­tain­ing vac­ci­na­tion is rec­om­mend­ed for the pre­ven­tion of neona­tal per­tus­sis, but the abil­i­ty of mater­nal vac­ci­na­tion to pro­tect pre­ma­ture infants is unknown. We hypoth­e­sized that that infants born pre­ma­ture­ly to ante­na­tal­ly vac­ci­nat­ed women would have high­er per­tus­sis anti­body…

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Long-term Cognitive and Health Outcomes of School-Aged Children Who Were Born Late-Term vs Full-Term

Figlio et al, JAMA Pedi­atr, June 06, 2016 Impor­tance  Late-term ges­ta­tion (defined as the 41st week of preg­nan­cy) is asso­ci­at­ed with increased risk of peri­na­tal health com­pli­ca­tions. It is not known to what extent late-term ges­ta­tion is asso­ci­at­ed with long-term cog­ni­tive and phys­i­cal out­comes. Infor­ma­tion about long-term out­comes may influ­ence physi­cian and patient…

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Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency and Behavioral Issues in Offspring

Mater­nal vit­a­min D defi­cien­cy in ear­ly preg­nan­cy is asso­ci­at­ed with an increased risk of behav­ioral issues and atten­tion-deficit/hy­per­ac­tiv­i­ty dis­or­der (ADHD)–like symp­toms in preschool chil­dren, accord­ing to new data from a birth cohort study in Greece. But no asso­ci­a­tion was found between mater­nal vit­a­min D defi­cien­cy and cog­ni­tive scores in the…

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Febrile Seizure Risk After Vaccination in Children 6 to 23 Months

Duffy et al, Pedi­atrics, June 2016 Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: An increased risk of febrile seizure (FS) was iden­ti­fied with con­comi­tant admin­is­tra­tion of triva­lent inac­ti­vat­ed influen­za vac­cine (IIV3) and pneu­mo­coc­cal con­ju­gate vac­cine (PCV) 13-valent dur­ing the 2010–2011 influen­za sea­son. Our objec­tive was to deter­mine whether con­comi­tant admin­is­tra­tion of IIV3 with oth­er vac­cines…

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Association Between Bottle Size and Formula Intake in 2-Month-Old Infants.

Wood et al, Acad Pedi­atr.  2016  OBJECTIVE: To deter­mine range of bot­tle sizes used and exam­ine the rela­tion­ship between bot­tle size and total dai­ly con­sump­tion of infant for­mu­la. RESULTS: Of 865 par­tic­i­pants in the Green­light study, 44% of infants were exclu­sive­ly for­mu­la fed at 2 months. Medi­an vol­ume per day…

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Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and the risk of febrile seizures and childhood epilepsy.

Maim­burg et al, Epilep­sy Res. 2016 May 19 Abstract:  PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to esti­mate the asso­ci­a­tion between new­born chil­dren treat­ed with pho­toter­apy for hyper­biliru­bine­mia and the sub­se­quent risk of febrile seizures or epilep­sy in ear­ly child­hood. METHODS: We con­duct­ed a fol­low-up study of sin­gle­ton chil­dren (N=70 230) born between Feb­ru­ary…

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Altered breathing mechanics and ventilatory response during exercise in children born extremely preterm.

MacLean et al, Tho­rax. 2016 Jun 3.  Abstract BACKGROUND: Extreme preterm birth con­fers risk of long-term impair­ments in lung func­tion and exer­cise capac­i­ty. There are lim­it­ed data on the fac­tors con­tribut­ing to exer­cise lim­i­ta­tion fol­low­ing extreme preterm birth. This study exam­ined res­pi­ra­to­ry mechan­ics and ven­ti­la­to­ry response dur­ing exer­cise in a large cohort of…

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Randomized Controlled Trial of Talactoferrin Oral Solution in Preterm Infants.

Sher­man et al, J Pedi­atr. 2016 May 31. Abstract OBJECTIVE:To eval­u­ate the safe­ty and explore the effi­ca­cy of recom­bi­nant human lacto­fer­rin (talacto­fer­rin [TLf]) to reduce infec­tion. STUDY DESIGN: a ran­dom­ized, dou­ble blind, place­bo-con­trolled tri­al in infants with birth weight of 750‑1500 g.  RESULTS: The rate of hos­pi­tal-acquired infec­tions was 50% low­er in the…

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Treatment Options for Persistent Coagulase Negative Staphylococcal Bacteremia in Neonates.

Gkentzi et al, Curr Pedi­atr Rev. 2016 Jun 3 Depart­ment of Pae­di­atrics, Uni­ver­si­ty Gen­er­al Hos­pi­tal of Patras, Patras Med­ical School, Rio, Greece Abstract BACKGROUND: Coag­u­lase-neg­a­tive staphy­lo­coc­ci (CoNS) are the lead­ing cause of late-onset sep­sis in neona­tal inten­sive-care units (NICUs). Despite ade­quate ther­a­peu­tic lev­els and in vivo sus­cep­ti­bil­i­ty, van­comycin is not always ade­quate…

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Preterm birth and cerebellar neuropathology.

Improved sur­vival rates in pre­ma­ture infants and more sen­si­tive neu­roimag­ing tech­niques have expand­ed the scope of rec­og­nized neu­rode­vel­op­men­tal dis­abil­i­ties in this vul­ner­a­ble pop­u­la­tion and have impli­cat­ed a role for cere­bel­lar pathol­o­gy in their ori­gin. Although supra­ten­to­r­i­al patholo­gies are well stud­ied, cere­bel­lar pathol­o­gy has been under-rec­og­nized in pre­ma­ture infants. The pur­pose…

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Reading difficulty in school-aged very low birth weight infants in Japan.

Takeuchi et al, Brain Dev. 2016 May 10 Abstract OBJECTIVE: To inves­ti­gate the preva­lence of and the peri­na­tal risk fac­tors relat­ed to read­ing dif­fi­cul­ty in school-aged very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) with nor­mal intel­li­gence. RESULTS: Twen­ty-five (31.6%) out of 79 sub­jects had RD. We dis­cov­ered that treat­ed retinopa­thy of pre­ma­tu­ri­ty (tRoP) was…

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Effect of Early Prophylactic High-Dose Recombinant Human Erythropoietin in Very Preterm Infants on Neurodevelopmental Outcome at 2 Years: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Nataluc­ci et al, JAMA. 2016 May 17 Abstract IMPORTANCE: Very preterm infants are at risk of devel­op­ing encephalopa­thy of pre­ma­tu­ri­ty and long-term neu­rode­vel­op­men­tal delay. Ery­thro­poi­etin treat­ment is neu­ro­pro­tec­tive in ani­mal exper­i­men­tal and human clin­i­cal stud­ies. OBJECTIVE: To deter­mine whether pro­phy­lac­tic ear­ly high-dose recom­bi­nant human ery­thro­poi­etin (rhE­PO) in preterm infants improves neu­rode­vel­op­men­tal out­come at…

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Does Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency Increase the Risk of Preterm Birth: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

Qin et al, Nutri­ents. 2016 May 20 Abstract: There are dis­agree­ments among researchers about the asso­ci­a­tion between vit­a­min D defi­cien­cy dur­ing preg­nan­cy and preterm birth (PTB). There­fore, we con­duct­ed a meta-analy­sis of obser­va­tion­al stud­ies to eval­u­ate this asso­ci­a­tion. We per­formed a sys­tem­at­ic lit­er­a­ture search of PubMed, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library through…

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Impact of fetal gender on the risk of preterm birth, a national cohort study.

Pee­len et al, Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2016 May 24 Abstract INTRODUCTION: Fetal gen­der is asso­ci­at­ed with preterm birth, how­ev­er a prop­er sub­di­vi­sion by onset of labor and cor­re­spond­ing neona­tal out­come by week of ges­ta­tion is lack­ing. RESULTS:The study pop­u­la­tion com­prised 1 736 615 sin­gle­ton deliv­er­ies (25+0 -42+6 weeks). Male fetus­es were…

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Intraventricular hemorrhage in neonates born before 32 weeks of gestation-retrospective analysis of risk factors.

Szpecht et al, Childs Nerv Syst. 2016 May 28 Abstract INTRODUCTION: Intra­ven­tric­u­lar hem­or­rhage (IVH) affects 15–20 % of babies born before 32 weeks of preg­nan­cy. A lot of risk fac­tors of devel­op­ing IVH are known. The mak­ing appro­pri­ate rec­om­men­da­tions for deal­ing with infant born less than 32 weeks of ges­ta­tion aimed at reduc­ing the inci­dence…

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Repeated Courses of Oral Ibuprofen in Premature Infants with Patent Ductus Arteriosus: Efficacy and Safety

Olgun et al, Pedi­atr Neona­tol. 2016 Apr 29. Abstract BACKGROUND: There are lim­it­ed data about the results of repeat­ed oral ibupro­fen (OIBU) treat­ment. This study aimed to describe patent duc­tus arte­rio­sus (PDA) clo­sure rates and adverse events after repeat­ed cours­es of OIBU in pre­ma­ture infants with PDA. METHODS: Preterm infants with hemo­dy­nam­i­cal­ly sig­nif­i­cant…

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Clinical Management of Recurrent Retinopathy of Prematurity after Intravitreal Bevacizumab Monotherapy.

Hit­tner et al, Oph­thal­mol­o­gy. 2016 May Abstract PURPOSE: To deter­mine inci­dence, risk fac­tors, risk peri­od, and char­ac­ter­is­tics of recur­rent retinopa­thy of pre­ma­tu­ri­ty (ROP) treat­ed by intrav­it­re­al beva­cizum­ab (IVB) monother­a­py. RESULTS: Intrav­it­re­al beva­cizum­ab monother­a­py in 241 infants (471 eyes) was reviewed. Recur­rence inci­dence was 8.3% (20/241) for infants and 7.2% (34/471) for eyes.  CONCLUSIONS: Pre­ma­ture…

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Oral Care in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

Rodriguez et al, J Matern Fetal Neona­tal Med. 2016 May Abstract OBJECTIVE: Com­pare the oral col­o­niza­tion pro­file of pre­ma­ture infants admit­ted at NICU before and after doing oral care rou­tine with ster­ile water ver­sus no inter­ven­tion. METHODS: It was a ran­dom­ized clin­i­cal tri­al com­posed of 37 pre­ma­ture infants admit­ted at the NICU RESULT: In the…

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Feeding practices and other risk factors for developing transfusion-associated necrotizing enterocolitis.

Derien­zo, et al,  Ear­ly Hum Dev. 2014 May Abstract AIMS: The objec­tive of this study is to deter­mine the inci­dence of and risk fac­tors for necro­tiz­ing ente­ro­col­i­tis (NEC) and trans­fu­sion-asso­ci­at­ed NEC (TANEC) in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants pre/post imple­men­ta­tion of a peri-trans­fu­sion feed­ing pro­to­col. RESULTS: A total of 148/1380 (10.7%) infants devel­oped…

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Thrombocytopenia in Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants

Chris­tensen, et al  Pedi­atrics, july 2015 BACKGROUND: Throm­bo­cy­tope­nia is com­mon among small-for-ges­ta­tion­al-age (SGA) neonates (birth weight <10th per­centile ref­er­ence range), but sev­er­al aspects of this throm­bo­cy­tope­nia are unclear, includ­ing the inci­dence, typ­i­cal nadir, dura­tion, asso­ci­a­tion with preeclamp­sia, mech­a­nism, and risk of death. METHODS: Using 9 years of mul­ti­hos­pi­tal records, wes­t­ud­ied SGA neonates…

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Effects of ventilation on hearing loss in preterm neonates: Nasal continuous positive pressure does not increase the risk of hearing loss in ventilated neonates.

Ras­to­gi et al, Int J Pedi­atr Otorhi­no­laryn­gol. 2013 Mar Abstract INTRODUCTION:There is increased risk of hear­ing loss in preterm neonates. This risk is fur­ther increased by envi­ron­men­tal noise expo­sure espe­cial­ly from life sup­port equip­ment such as ven­ti­la­tion. Nasal con­tin­u­ous pos­i­tive air­way pres­sure (NCPAP) used for res­pi­ra­to­ry sup­port of preterm neonates is known…

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Paracetamol Accelerates Closure of the Ductus Arteriosus after Premature Birth: A Randomized Trial.

Härkin et al, J Pedi­atr. 2016 May Abstract OBJECTIVE: To study the bio­log­ic effect of parac­eta­mol, an inhibitor of prostaglandin syn­thase, on ear­ly clo­sure of duc­tus arte­rio­sus, and to eval­u­ate pos­si­ble adverse effects asso­ci­at­ed with the drug. RESULTS: Of 63 screened infants, 48 were ran­dom­ized: 23 were assigned to parac­eta­mol and 25 to…

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Oral lactoferrin for the prevention of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants

Pam­mi & Abrams, Cochrane Data­base Syst Rev. 2015 Feb Abstract BACKGROUND: Lacto­fer­rin, a nor­mal com­po­nent of human colostrum and milk, can enhance host defense and may be effec­tive in the pre­ven­tion of sep­sis and necro­tiz­ing ente­ro­col­i­tis (NEC) in preterm neonates. OBJECTIVES: Pri­ma­ry objec­tive To assess the safe­ty and effec­tive­ness of oral lacto­fer­rin in the…

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Novel Approaches to Improve the Intrinsic Microbiological Safety of Powdered Infant Milk Formula

Kent et al, Nutri­ents. 2015 Feb Abstract Human milk is recog­nised as the best form of nutri­tion for infants. How­ev­er; in instances where breast-feed­ing is not pos­si­ble, unsuit­able or inad­e­quate, infant milk for­mu­lae are used as breast milk sub­sti­tutes. These for­mu­lae are designed to pro­vide infants with opti­mum nutri­tion for nor­mal…

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Neonatal Phototherapy and Infantile Cancer

Wick­re­mas­inghe, et al, Pedi­atrics 2016 OBJECTIVE: To deter­mine whether neona­tal pho­tother­a­py is asso­ci­at­ed with can­cer in the first abstract year after birth. RESULTS: Can­cer was diag­nosed in 58/178 017 infants with diag­no­sis codes for pho­tother­a­py and 1042/4 966 832 infants with­out such codes (32.6/100 000 vs 21.0/100 000; rel­a­tive risk 1.6; 95% con­fi­dence inter­val [CI],…

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