Human Milk Feeding as a Protective Factor for Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Meta-analysis

Zhou et al, Pedi­atrics, Novem­ber 2015 CONTEXT: Stud­ies have sug­gest­ed that human milk feed­ing decreas­es the inci­dence of retinopa­thy of pre­ma­tu­ri­ty (ROP); how­ev­er, con­flict­ing results have been report­ed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this meta-analy­sis was to pool cur­rent­ly avail­able data on inci­dence of ROP in infants fed human milk ver­sus…

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Brief Resolved Unexplained Events (Formerly Apparent Life-Threatening Events) and Evaluation of Lower-Risk Infants

Pedi­atrics, April 2016, From the Amer­i­can Acad­e­my of Pedi­atrics, Clin­i­cal Prac­tice Guide­line This is the first clin­i­cal prac­tice guide­line from the Amer­i­can Acad­e­my of Pedi­atrics that specif­i­cal­ly applies to patients who have expe­ri­enced an appar­ent life-threat­en­ing event (ALTE). This clin­i­cal prac­tice guide­line has 3 objec­tives. First, it rec­om­mends the replace­ment of the…

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Early removal versus expectant management of central venous catheters in newborn infants with bloodstream infection

Vasude­van et al, 20 April 2016,Cochrane review Review ques­tion: In new­born infants with a blood­stream infec­tion who have a cen­tral venous catheter in place, does ear­ly removal of the catheter reduce the riskof com­pli­ca­tions, includ­ing death and long-term dis­abil­i­ty? Back­ground: Infec­tion in the blood­stream is a fre­quent and harm­ful com­pli­ca­tion for new­born infants who have a cen­tral venous catheter (a can­nu­la that extends sev­er­al…

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Association of Serum Albumin Level and Mortality in Premature Infants

Tor­er et al, J Clin Lab Anal. 2016  Abstract BACKGROUND: Hypoal­bu­mine­mia has been proven to be a pow­er­ful pre­dic­tor of mor­tal­i­ty in adult patients. How­ev­er, prog­nos­tic val­ue of serum albu­min in neonates is not clear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the rela­tion­ship between serum albu­min lev­el with­in the first day of life and out­come…

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Urinary Intestinal Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Can Distinguish Necrotizing Enterocolitis fromSepsis in Early Stage of the Disease.

Coufal et al, Immunol Res. 2016 Abstract Necro­tiz­ing ente­ro­col­i­tis (NEC) is severe dis­ease of gas­troin­testi­nal tract, yet its ear­ly symp­toms are non­spe­cif­ic, eas­i­ly inter­change­able with sep­sis. There­fore, reli­able bio­mark­ers for ear­ly diag­nos­tics are need­ed in clin­i­cal prac­tice. Here, we ana­lyzed if mark­ers of gut mucosa dam­age, cas­pase cleaved cytok­er­atin 18 (ccCK18)…

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Oral immunoglobulin for preventing necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm and low birth weight neonates

Fos­ter JP, Cole MJ, Seth R, 4 April 2016, Cochrane review Review ques­tion: Does the use of oral immunoglob­u­lin reduce the inci­dence of necro­tiz­ing ente­ro­col­i­tis and oth­er com­pli­ca­tions in preterm or low birth weight (or both) neonates? Back­ground: Immunoglob­u­lin giv­en oral­ly for pre­vent­ing emer­gency intesti­nal prob­lems (necro­tiz­ing ente­ro­col­i­tis) in pre­ma­ture and low birth weight new­born infants. Destruc­tive inflam­ma­tion…

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Risk Factors for Neurotoxicity in Newborns With Severe Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia

Rasha Gamaleldin, Iman Iskan­der, Iman Seoud, Hanan Abo­raya, Alek­san­dr Aravkin, Paul D. Samp­son, Richard P. Wennberg, Pedi­atrics, Octo­ber 2011, VOLUME 128 / ISSUE 4   Abstract OBJECTIVE: To eval­u­ate the impor­tance of total serum biliru­bin (TSB) and neu­ro­tox­i­c­i­ty risk fac­tors in pre­dict­ing acute biliru­bin encephalopa­thy (ABE) at admis­sion or post­treat­ment biliru­bin encephalopa­thy (BE) in infants with severe hyper­biliru­bine­mia.…

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The effects of inhaled albuterol in transient tachypnea of the newborn

Kim et al, Aller­gy Asth­ma Immunol Res. 2014 Mar; Abstract PURPOSE: Tran­sient tachyp­nea of the new­born (TTN) is a dis­or­der caused by the delayed clear­ance of fetal alve­o­lar flu­id. β-adren­er­g­ic ago­nists such as albuterol (salbu­ta­mol) are known to cat­alyze lung flu­id absorp­tion. This study exam­ined whether inhala­tion­al salbu­ta­mol ther­a­py could improve clin­i­cal symp­toms in TTN.…

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Effects of ventilation on hearing loss in preterm neonates: Nasal continuous positive pressure does not increase the risk of hearing loss in ventilated neonates

Ras­to­gi et al, Int J Pedi­atr Otorhi­no­laryn­gol. 2013 Mar Abstract INTRODUCTION: There is increased risk of hear­ing loss in preterm neonates. This risk is fur­ther increased by envi­ron­men­tal noise expo­sure espe­cial­ly from life sup­port equip­ment such as ven­ti­la­tion. Nasal con­tin­u­ous pos­i­tive air­way pres­sure (NCPAP) used for res­pi­ra­to­ry sup­port of preterm neonates is…

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Short Maternal Stature Increases Risk of Small-for-Gestational-Age and Preterm Births in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Indi­vid­ual Par­tic­i­pant Data Meta-Analy­sis and Pop­u­la­tion Attrib­ut­able Frac­tion. Kozu­ki et al, J Nutr. 2015 BACKGROUND: Small-for-ges­ta­tion­al-age (SGA) and preterm births are asso­ci­at­ed with adverse health con­se­quences, includ­ing neona­tal and­in­fant mor­tal­i­ty, child­hood under­nu­tri­tion, and adult­hood chron­ic dis­ease. OBJECTIVES: The spe­cif­ic aims of this study were to esti­mate the asso­ci­a­tion between short mater­nal stature and out­comes of…

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Patient-to-nurse ratios and outcomes of moderately preterm infants.

Prof­it et al, Pedi­atrics. 2010 Feb; Abstract OBJECTIVE: Mod­er­ate­ly preterm infants (30–34(6/7) weeks’ ges­ta­tion­al age) rep­re­sent the largest pop­u­la­tion of NICU res­i­dents. Whether their clin­i­cal out­comes are asso­ci­at­ed with dif­fer­ences in NICU nurse-staffing arrange­ments has not been assessed. The objec­tive of this study was to test the influ­ence of patient-to-nurse…

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Liver Failure in Early Infancy: Aetiology, Presentation and Outcome.

Bitar et al, J Pedi­atr Gas­troen­terol Nutr. 2016 Mar 21.   Abstract OBJECTIVE: Acute liv­er fail­ure (ALF) in ear­ly infan­cy is rare and chal­leng­ing to recog­nise and man­age. We aim to describe the pre­sen­ta­tion and out­come of infants with ALF accord­ing to their final aeti­ol­o­gy in order to elu­ci­date fea­tures…

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Lung Function at 8 and 16 Years After Moderate-to-Late Preterm Birth: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Thun­qvist et al, Pedi­atrics. 2016 Mar  Knowl­edge regard­ing lung func­tion after mod­er­ate­ly preterm birth is lim­it­ed. We there­fore inves­ti­gat­ed lung func­tion at ear­ly school age and ado­les­cence among chil­dren born mod­er­ate­ly preterm. RESULTS: At age 8 years, adjust­ed forced expi­ra­to­ry vol­ume in 1 sec­ond was low­er in preterm female sub­jects…

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Impact of antenatal steroids on intraventricular hemorrhage in very-low-birth weight infants.

Wei et al, J Peri­na­tol. 2016 Mar 24. Abstract OBJECTIVE: To deter­mine the asso­ci­a­tion between ante­na­tal steroids admin­is­tra­tion and intra­ven­tric­u­lar hem­or­rhage rates. RESULTS: In 25 979 very-low-birth weight infants, ante­na­tal steroid use was asso­ci­at­ed with a reduc­tion in inci­dence of any grade of intra­ven­tric­u­lar hem­or­rhage (odds ratio=0.68, 95% con­fi­dence inter­val: 0.62,…

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Fish oil supplementation improves pregnancy outcomes and size of the newborn: a meta-analysis of 21 randomized controlled trials.

Chen et al, J Matern Fetal Neona­tal Med. 2016 Jun Abstract OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of fish oil on relat­ed preg­nan­cy out­comes. RESULTS: Twen­ty-one stud­ies com­pris­ing 10 802 preg­nant women were includ­ed. Dietary fish oil was asso­ci­at­ed with a 5.8-day increase in ges­ta­tion­al age of the new­born, a 22% reduced…

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Transient Intermittent Hypoxia Exposure Disrupts Neonatal Bone Strength.

Kim et al, Front Pedi­atr. 2016 Mar  Abstract A brief inter­mit­tent hypox­ia (IH, ambi­ent O2 lev­els alter­nat­ing between room air and 12% O2) for 1 h imme­di­ate­ly after birth result­ed in pan­cre­at­ic islet dys­func­tion asso­ci­at­ed with zinc defi­cien­cy as pre­vi­ous­ly report­ed. We hypoth­e­sized that IH expo­sure mod­u­lates zinc home­osta­sis in bone…

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Feeding Neonates by Cup: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

McK­in­ney et al, Matern Child Health J. 2016 Mar 25. Abstract Objec­tive WHO and UNICEF rec­om­mend cup feed­ing for neonates unable to breast­feed in low-resource set­tings. In devel­oped coun­tries, cup feed­ing in lieu of bot­tle feed­ing in the neona­tal peri­od is hypoth­e­sized to improve breast­feed­ing out­comes for those ini­tial­ly unable…

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Predictors of Breastfeeding Initiation and Frequency for Preterm Infants in the NICU.

Vilen et al, J Obstet Gynecol Neona­tal Nurs. 2016 Mar  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To deter­mine fac­tors that pre­dict the ini­ti­a­tion and fre­quen­cy of breast­feed­ing, atti­tudes about breast­feed­ing, and the self-effi­­ca­­cy of moth­ers of preterm infants in a neona­tal inten­sive care unit. RESULTS: Preterm infants ini­ti­at­ed breast­feed­ing at the medi­an post­na­tal age…

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Neonatal risk factors of atopic dermatitis in Denmark — results from a nationwide register based study.

Ege­berg etal, Pedi­atr Aller­gy Immunol. 2016 Mar 7 Atopic der­mati­tis (AD) is a chron­ic inflam­ma­to­ry skin con­di­tion with a mul­ti­fac­to­r­i­al etiopatho­gen­e­sis. Stud­ies have sug­gest­ed that sev­er­al peri­na­tal fac­tors may influ­ence the risk of AD in ear­ly child­hood. We inves­ti­gat­ed pos­si­ble neona­tal risk fac­tors such as jaun­dice, blue light pho­tother­a­py, birth weight,…

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Reducing pain during vaccine injections: clinical practice guideline

 Anna Tad­dio et al, CMAJ 2015.  Clin­i­cians who admin­is­ter vac­cines can take a series of proac­tive actions, includ­ing shuf­fling the order of injec­tions, lever­ag­ing the calm­ing influ­ence of par­ents and breast-feed­ing, and rou­tine­ly apply­ing top­i­cal anes­thet­ic, to alle­vi­ate pain for patients of all ages, accord­ing to a new clin­i­cal prac­tice guide­line.…

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Estimating umbilical catheter insertion depth in newborns using weight or body measurement: a randomised trial

 Kier­an et al, Arch Dis Child Fetal Neona­tal 2014  Abstract Objec­tive Incor­rect­ly posi­tioned umbil­i­cal venous and arte­r­i­al catheters (UVC and UAC) are asso­ci­at­ed with increased rates of com­pli­ca­tions in new­borns. Catheter inser­tion depth is often esti­mat­ed using body sur­face mea­sure­ment. We wished to deter­mine whether esti­mat­ing inser­tion depth of umbil­i­cal catheters…

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Preterm Birth and Poor Fetal Growth as Risk Factors of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Sucks­dorff, et al, Pedi­atrics, August, 2015 Abstract BACKGROUND: Pre­vi­ous stud­ies have shown an asso­ci­a­tion between pre­ma­tu­ri­ty and atten­tion-deficit/hy­per­ac­tiv­i­ty dis­or­der (ADHD). Results con­cern­ing late preterm infants are con­tro­ver­sial, and stud­ies exam­in­ing fetal growth rep­re­sent­ed by weight for ges­ta­tion­al age are scarce. Our objec­tive was to exam­ine the asso­ci­a­tion between ges­ta­tion­al age…

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A Randomized Trial of Phototherapy with Filtered Sunlight in African Neonates

Slush­er, et al, N Engl J Med 2015 BACKGROUND Seque­lae of severe neona­tal hyper­biliru­bine­mia con­sti­tute a sub­stan­tial dis­ease bur­den in areas where effec­tive con­ven­tion­al pho­tother­a­py is unavail­able. We pre­vi­ous­ly found that the use of fil­tered sun­light for the pur­pose of pho­tother­a­py is a safe and effi­ca­cious method for reduc­ing total biliru­bin. How­ev­er,…

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Mental performance in 8-year-old children fed reduced protein content formula during the 1st year of life: safety analysis of a randomised clinical trial.

Escrib­ano et al, Br J Nutr. 2016 Jan In humans, max­i­mum brain devel­op­ment occurs between the third trimester of ges­ta­tion and 2 years of life. Nutri­tion dur­ing these crit­i­cal win­dows of rapid brain devel­op­ment might be essen­tial for lat­er cog­ni­tive func­tion­ing and behav­iour. In the last few years, trends on pro­tein rec­om­men­da­tions dur­ing infan­cy…

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Azithromycin in early infancy and pyloric stenosis

Eber­ly et al, Pedi­atrics. 2015 March Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Use of oral ery­thromycin in infants is asso­ci­at­ed with infan­tile hyper­trophic pyloric steno­sis (IHPS). The risk with azithromycin remains unknown. We eval­u­at­ed the asso­ci­a­tion between expo­sure to oral azithromycin and ery­thromycin and sub­se­quent devel­op­ment of IHPS. CONCLUSIONS: Inges­tion of oral azithromycin and ery­thromycin places young infants at increased…

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