A Clinical Prediction Rule for Rebound Hyperbilirubinemia Following Inpatient Phototherapy

Chang et al, Pediatrics, February 2017 Abstract OBJECTIVES: The American Academy of Pediatrics provides little guidance on when to discontinue phototherapy in newborns treated for hyperbilirubinemia. We sought to develop a prediction rule to estimate the probability of rebound hyperbilirubinemia after inpatient phototherapy. METHODS: Subjects for this retrospective cohort study were…

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Does Topical Lidocaine Reduce the Pain Associated With the Insertion of Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Prongs in Preterm Infants?: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Trial.

Soliman, Elsharkawy & Abdel-Hady. Clin J Pain. 2016 Nov Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of topical lidocaine 2% gel in reducing the pain associated with the insertion of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) prongs in preterm infants. DISCUSSION: Data suggest that topical lidocaine did not reduce the pain associated…

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Conventional Versus Prolonged Infusion of Meropenem in Neonates with Gram Negative Late Onset Sepsis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Shabaan, Nour, Eldegla, Nasef, Shouman, Abdel-Hady. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2016 Nov 30. Abstract BACKGROUND: Gram-negative bacteria are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in preterm and term newborns. Meropenem has widespread efficacy and often allows for monotherapy in this group. Prolonged infusion instead of infusion over 30 minutes has…

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Haemodynamic Transition after Birth: A New Tool for Non-Invasive Cardiac Output Monitoring

Freidl et al, Neonatology 2017 Abstract Background: Substantial haemodynamic changes occur during the first minutes after birth. Currently, only heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation are routinely used to monitor haemodynamic transition after birth. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to continuously assess haemodynamic changes during transition in…

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Diagnosis Accuracy of Transcutaneous Bilirubinometry in Very Preterm Newborns

Rubio et al, Neonatology 2017 Abstract Background: Transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) is a validated test for systematic screening of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and monitoring term and near-term infants under phototherapy. Objectives: To evaluate TcB diagnostic accuracy for very preterm neonates. Methods: Total serum bilirubin (TSB) and TcB measurements were performed prospectively in a…

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Maturation of the infant microbiome community structure and function across multiple body sites and in relation to mode of delivery

Chu et al, Nature Medicine(2017) Abstract Human microbial communities are characterized by their taxonomic, metagenomic and metabolic diversity, which varies by distinct body sites and influences human physiology. However, when and how microbial communities within each body niche acquire unique taxonomical and functional signatures in early life remains underexplored. We conclude…

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Association of Perinatal Risk Factors with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Getahun et al, Amer J Perinatol, Jan, 2017 Abstract Objective To examine the association between exposures to perinatal factors and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Conclusion Exposure to antepartum or intrapartum complications increases the risk of ASD in the offspring. Therefore, pregnancy complications may help identify children who could benefit from early screening and…

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Prophylactic Probiotics for Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

Olsen et al, Neonatology, Vol. 109, No. 2, 2016 Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major morbidity and cause of mortality in preterm neonates. Probiotics seem to have a beneficial role in preventing NEC, which is confirmed in meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We therefore aimed to review and confirm…

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Psychiatric Disorders and General Functioning in Low Birth Weight Adults: A Longitudinal Study

Lærum et al, Pediatrics, January 2017 Abstract OBJECTIVE: To examine psychiatric morbidity and overall functioning in adults born with low birth weight compared with normal birth weight controls at age 26 years and to study longitudinal trajectories of psychiatric morbidity from early adolescence to adulthood.  CONCLUSIONS: Low birth weight was a substantial…

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Synchronized mechanical ventilation for respiratory support in newborn infants

Greenough et al, September 2016, Cochrane Neonatal Group Background During synchronised mechanical ventilation, positive airway pressure and spontaneous inspiration coincide. If synchronous ventilation is provoked, adequate gas exchange should be achieved at lower peak airway pressures, potentially reducing baro/volutrauma, air leak and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Synchronous ventilation can potentially be achieved by…

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Association Between Early Lactate Levels and 30-Day Mortality in Clinically Suspected Sepsis in Children

Scott, et al, JAMA Pediatr. January 9, 2017.  Abstract Importance  Improving emergency care of pediatric sepsis is a public health priority, but optimal early diagnostic approaches are unclear. Measurement of lactate levels is associated with improved outcomes in adult septic shock, but pediatric guidelines do not endorse its use, in part because…

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Maternal Preferences for Vitamin D Supplementation in Breastfed Infants

Umaretiya, et al, annals of family medicine, 2016 Abstract Daily vitamin D supplementation is recommended for breastfed infants, but alternative methods include enriching breast milk with vitamin D through maternal supplementation or intermittent high-dose vitamin D. We determined maternal preferences for vitamin D supplementation in 140 mothers with exclusively breastfed…

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Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Neonatal Patients: An Update

Cernada et al, Neonatology 2014 Abstract Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious complication related to mechanical ventilation in the neonatal period. However, lack of a specific definition and difficulties obtaining noncontaminated samples of the lower respiratory airway render microbiological diagnosis and etiological treatment extremely difficult. Thus far, only few studies have…

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Comparing the Impact of Topical Application of Human Milk and Chlorhexidine on Cord Separation Time in Newborns

Abbaszadeh, et al, Pak J Med Sci. 2016 PAKISTANI STUDY Abstract Objectives: The best umbilical cord care after birth is a controversial issue. Aim of this research was to compare the effect of topical application of hu man milk and chlorhexidin on cord separation time in newborns. Conclusions: Topical application of…

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Bronchodilators for the prevention and treatment of chronic lung disease in preterm infants

Editorial Group: Cochrane Neonatal Group14 December 2016 Abstract Background Chronic lung disease (CLD) occurs frequently in preterm infants. Bronchodilators have the potential effect of dilating small a irways with muscle hypertrophy. Increased compliance and tidal volume and decreased pulmonary resistance have been documented with the use of bronchodilators in infants…

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Longchain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in preterm infants

Moon et al, Cochrane Neonatal Group, 20 December 2016 Abstract Background Controversy exists over whether longchain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are essential nutrients for preterm infants because they may not be able to synthesise sufficient amounts of LCPUFA to meet the needs of the developing brain and retina. Objectives To assess whether…

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Breastfeeding for procedural pain in infants beyond the neonatal period

Harrison et al, 28 October 2016 Cochrane Pain, Palliative and Supportive Care Group Abstract Background Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) show that breastfeeding newbo rn infants during painful procedures reduces pain. Mechanisms are considered to be multifactorial and include sucking, skin-to-skin contact, warmth, rocking, sound and smell of the mother, and possibly…

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Association of Neurodevelopmental Outcomes and Neonatal Morbidities of Extremely Premature Infants With Differential Exposure to Antenatal Steroids

Chawla et al,  JAMA Pediatr. 2016 Abstract Importance:  Many premature infants are born without exposure to antenatal steroids (ANS) or with incomplete courses. This study evaluates the dose-dependent effect of ANS on rates of neonatal morbidities and early childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely premature infants. Objective:  To compare rates of…

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Oral dextrose gel for the treatment of hypoglycaemia in newborn infants.

Weston et al, Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 May 4 Abstract BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypoglycaemia, a common condition, can be associated with brain injury. It is frequently managed by providing infants with an alternative source of glucose, given enterally with formula or intravenously with dextrose solution. This often requires that mother and…

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Intussusception Rates Before and After the Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccine.

Tate et al, Pediatrics 2016 Abstract BACKGROUND: Recent US studies have identified a small increased risk of intussusception after rotavirus vaccination, mainly after the first dose. We examined trends in intussusception hospitalizations before (2000-2005) and after (2007-2013) rotavirus vaccine introduction to assess whether this observed temporal risk translates into more…

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Differences Between Transcutaneous and Serum Bilirubin Measurements in Black African Neonates

Bolajoko et al, Pediatrics, August 2016 Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) correlates positively with total serum bilirubin (TSB) across different racial populations. However, little is known about the pattern of divergence between TcB and TSB at individual patient-level and the relationship with TcB measuring techniques among African neonates. This…

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Changing the Definition of Critical Heart Disease in the Newborn

Słodki; J Perinatol. 2016 Abstract Infants born with congenital heart disease (CHD) may require emergent treatment in the newborn period. These infants are likely to benefit the most from a prenatal diagnosis, which allows for optimal perinatal planning. Several cardiac centers have created guidelines for the management of these high-risk patients…

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