The Role of Hydrocortisone in the Management of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

Monds, Pediatr Pharm. 2016; Although the clinical landscape of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) has shifted over the years, BPD remains the most common form of chronic lung disease in infants. Historically BPD was seen in preterm infants who had suffered vasotrauma from aggressive mechanical ventilation. With advancements in medical care and the resultant survival…

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A Clinical Prediction Rule for Rebound Hyperbilirubinemia Following Inpatient Phototherapy

Chang et al, Pediatrics, February 2017 Abstract OBJECTIVES: The American Academy of Pediatrics provides little guidance on when to discontinue phototherapy in newborns treated for hyperbilirubinemia. We sought to develop a prediction rule to estimate the probability of rebound hyperbilirubinemia after inpatient phototherapy. METHODS: Subjects for this retrospective cohort study were…

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Does Topical Lidocaine Reduce the Pain Associated With the Insertion of Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Prongs in Preterm Infants?: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Trial.

Soliman, Elsharkawy & Abdel-Hady. Clin J Pain. 2016 Nov Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of topical lidocaine 2% gel in reducing the pain associated with the insertion of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) prongs in preterm infants. DISCUSSION: Data suggest that topical lidocaine did not reduce the pain associated…

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Conventional Versus Prolonged Infusion of Meropenem in Neonates with Gram Negative Late Onset Sepsis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Shabaan, Nour, Eldegla, Nasef, Shouman, Abdel-Hady. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2016 Nov 30. Abstract BACKGROUND: Gram-negative bacteria are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in preterm and term newborns. Meropenem has widespread efficacy and often allows for monotherapy in this group. Prolonged infusion instead of infusion over 30 minutes has…

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Haemodynamic Transition after Birth: A New Tool for Non-Invasive Cardiac Output Monitoring

Freidl et al, Neonatology 2017 Abstract Background: Substantial haemodynamic changes occur during the first minutes after birth. Currently, only heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation are routinely used to monitor haemodynamic transition after birth. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to continuously assess haemodynamic changes during transition in…

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Diagnosis Accuracy of Transcutaneous Bilirubinometry in Very Preterm Newborns

Rubio et al, Neonatology 2017 Abstract Background: Transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) is a validated test for systematic screening of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and monitoring term and near-term infants under phototherapy. Objectives: To evaluate TcB diagnostic accuracy for very preterm neonates. Methods: Total serum bilirubin (TSB) and TcB measurements were performed prospectively in a…

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Maturation of the infant microbiome community structure and function across multiple body sites and in relation to mode of delivery

Chu et al, Nature Medicine(2017) Abstract Human microbial communities are characterized by their taxonomic, metagenomic and metabolic diversity, which varies by distinct body sites and influences human physiology. However, when and how microbial communities within each body niche acquire unique taxonomical and functional signatures in early life remains underexplored. We conclude…

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Association of Perinatal Risk Factors with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Getahun et al, Amer J Perinatol, Jan, 2017 Abstract Objective To examine the association between exposures to perinatal factors and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Conclusion Exposure to antepartum or intrapartum complications increases the risk of ASD in the offspring. Therefore, pregnancy complications may help identify children who could benefit from early screening and…

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Prophylactic Probiotics for Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

Olsen et al, Neonatology, Vol. 109, No. 2, 2016 Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major morbidity and cause of mortality in preterm neonates. Probiotics seem to have a beneficial role in preventing NEC, which is confirmed in meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We therefore aimed to review and confirm…

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Psychiatric Disorders and General Functioning in Low Birth Weight Adults: A Longitudinal Study

Lærum et al, Pediatrics, January 2017 Abstract OBJECTIVE: To examine psychiatric morbidity and overall functioning in adults born with low birth weight compared with normal birth weight controls at age 26 years and to study longitudinal trajectories of psychiatric morbidity from early adolescence to adulthood.  CONCLUSIONS: Low birth weight was a substantial…

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Synchronized mechanical ventilation for respiratory support in newborn infants

Greenough et al, September 2016, Cochrane Neonatal Group Background During synchronised mechanical ventilation, positive airway pressure and spontaneous inspiration coincide. If synchronous ventilation is provoked, adequate gas exchange should be achieved at lower peak airway pressures, potentially reducing baro/volutrauma, air leak and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Synchronous ventilation can potentially be achieved by…

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Association Between Early Lactate Levels and 30-Day Mortality in Clinically Suspected Sepsis in Children

Scott, et al, JAMA Pediatr. January 9, 2017.  Abstract Importance  Improving emergency care of pediatric sepsis is a public health priority, but optimal early diagnostic approaches are unclear. Measurement of lactate levels is associated with improved outcomes in adult septic shock, but pediatric guidelines do not endorse its use, in part because…

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