Faster clean catch urine collection (Quick-Wee method) from infants: randomised controlled trial

Kaufman et al, BMJ 2017 Objective To determine if a simple stimulation method increases the rate of infant voiding for clean catch urine within five minutes. Gentle suprapubic cutaneous stimulation using gauze soaked in cold fluid is used. Design Randomised controlled trial. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was voiding of urine within five…

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Mid-Childhood Bone Mass After Exposure to Repeat Doses of Antenatal Glucocorticoids: A Randomized Trial

Christopher et al, Pediatrics, 2017 Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Treatment of women at risk for preterm birth with repeat doses of glucocorticoids reduces neonatal morbidity, but could have adverse effects on skeletal development. We assessed whether exposure to repeat antenatal betamethasone alters bone mass in children whose mothers participated in…

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Prophylactic Early Erythropoietin for Neuroprotection in Preterm Infants: A Meta-analysis

Hendrik et al, Pediatrics, April 2017 Abstract CONTEXT: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) is a promising pharmacological agent for neuroprotection in neonates. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether prophylactic rhEPO administration in very preterm infants improves neurodevelopmental outcomes in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane…

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Body Composition in Very Preterm Infants: Role of Neonatal Characteristics and Nutrition in Achieving Growth Similar to Term Infants

Tremblay et al, Neonatology 2017 Abstract Background: The identification of factors involved in the postnatal growth of preterm infants will help achieve growth similar to that of term infants. Objectives: As per protocol: to compare body composition in very preterm infants at term-corrected age (TCA) with that in term infants, and…

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Vitamin D for the management of asthma.

Martineau et al, Cochrane Review, September 2016 Abstract Background: Several clinical trials of vitamin D to prevent asthma exacerbation and improve asthma control have been conducted in children and adults, but a meta-analysis restricted to double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trials of this intervention is lacking. Authors’ conclusions: Whilst we are confident that Vitamin D reduced…

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Association Between Early Low-Dose Hydrocortisone Therapy in Extremely Preterm Neonates and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 2 Years of Age

Baud et al,  JAMA. 2017 Dexamethasone to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia in very preterm neonates was associated with adverse neurodevelopmental events. Early low-dose hydrocortisone treatment has been reported to improve survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia but its safety with regard to neurodevelopment remains to be assessed. In an exploratory analysis of secondary…

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Bacteremia in Children 3 to 36 Months Old After Introduction of Conjugated Pneumococcal Vaccines

Greenhow et al, Pediatrics, March 2017 Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In June 2010, Kais er Permanente Northern California replaced all 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) vaccines with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Our objectives were to compare the incidence of bacteremia in children 3 to 36 months old by 3…

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Increasing ED Use of Jet Injection of Lidocaine for IV-Related Pain Management

Jain et al, Pediatrics, March 2017 Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Venipuncture is a leading cause of procedural pain for children. Jet injection of lidocaine (JIL; J-Tip) has been demonstrated to be effective in controlling intravenous (IV) placement–related pain and, due to its rapid onset, is particularly suited to emergency department (ED) use.…

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Diet diversity, growth and adiposity in healthy breastfed infants fed homemade complementary foods

Mok et al, International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, March 2017 Background/Objectives: Infant complementary feeding is important for establishing food preferences. Few studies exist on the effects of infant complementary feeding choices (food preparation methods) on dietary intake, growth or adiposity. We examined whether provision of homemade complementary food is…

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The Role of Hydrocortisone in the Management of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

Monds, Pediatr Pharm. 2016; Although the clinical landscape of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) has shifted over the years, BPD remains the most common form of chronic lung disease in infants. Historically BPD was seen in preterm infants who had suffered vasotrauma from aggressive mechanical ventilation. With advancements in medical care and the resultant survival…

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A Clinical Prediction Rule for Rebound Hyperbilirubinemia Following Inpatient Phototherapy

Chang et al, Pediatrics, February 2017 Abstract OBJECTIVES: The American Academy of Pediatrics provides little guidance on when to discontinue phototherapy in newborns treated for hyperbilirubinemia. We sought to develop a prediction rule to estimate the probability of rebound hyperbilirubinemia after inpatient phototherapy. METHODS: Subjects for this retrospective cohort study were…

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Does Topical Lidocaine Reduce the Pain Associated With the Insertion of Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Prongs in Preterm Infants?: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Trial.

Soliman, Elsharkawy & Abdel-Hady. Clin J Pain. 2016 Nov Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of topical lidocaine 2% gel in reducing the pain associated with the insertion of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) prongs in preterm infants. DISCUSSION: Data suggest that topical lidocaine did not reduce the pain associated…

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Conventional Versus Prolonged Infusion of Meropenem in Neonates with Gram Negative Late Onset Sepsis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Shabaan, Nour, Eldegla, Nasef, Shouman, Abdel-Hady. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2016 Nov 30. Abstract BACKGROUND: Gram-negative bacteria are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in preterm and term newborns. Meropenem has widespread efficacy and often allows for monotherapy in this group. Prolonged infusion instead of infusion over 30 minutes has…

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Haemodynamic Transition after Birth: A New Tool for Non-Invasive Cardiac Output Monitoring

Freidl et al, Neonatology 2017 Abstract Background: Substantial haemodynamic changes occur during the first minutes after birth. Currently, only heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation are routinely used to monitor haemodynamic transition after birth. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to continuously assess haemodynamic changes during transition in…

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Diagnosis Accuracy of Transcutaneous Bilirubinometry in Very Preterm Newborns

Rubio et al, Neonatology 2017 Abstract Background: Transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) is a validated test for systematic screening of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and monitoring term and near-term infants under phototherapy. Objectives: To evaluate TcB diagnostic accuracy for very preterm neonates. Methods: Total serum bilirubin (TSB) and TcB measurements were performed prospectively in a…

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Maturation of the infant microbiome community structure and function across multiple body sites and in relation to mode of delivery

Chu et al, Nature Medicine(2017) Abstract Human microbial communities are characterized by their taxonomic, metagenomic and metabolic diversity, which varies by distinct body sites and influences human physiology. However, when and how microbial communities within each body niche acquire unique taxonomical and functional signatures in early life remains underexplored. We conclude…

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Association of Perinatal Risk Factors with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Getahun et al, Amer J Perinatol, Jan, 2017 Abstract Objective To examine the association between exposures to perinatal factors and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Conclusion Exposure to antepartum or intrapartum complications increases the risk of ASD in the offspring. Therefore, pregnancy complications may help identify children who could benefit from early screening and…

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Prophylactic Probiotics for Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

Olsen et al, Neonatology, Vol. 109, No. 2, 2016 Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major morbidity and cause of mortality in preterm neonates. Probiotics seem to have a beneficial role in preventing NEC, which is confirmed in meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We therefore aimed to review and confirm…

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Psychiatric Disorders and General Functioning in Low Birth Weight Adults: A Longitudinal Study

Lærum et al, Pediatrics, January 2017 Abstract OBJECTIVE: To examine psychiatric morbidity and overall functioning in adults born with low birth weight compared with normal birth weight controls at age 26 years and to study longitudinal trajectories of psychiatric morbidity from early adolescence to adulthood.  CONCLUSIONS: Low birth weight was a substantial…

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Synchronized mechanical ventilation for respiratory support in newborn infants

Greenough et al, September 2016, Cochrane Neonatal Group Background During synchronised mechanical ventilation, positive airway pressure and spontaneous inspiration coincide. If synchronous ventilation is provoked, adequate gas exchange should be achieved at lower peak airway pressures, potentially reducing baro/volutrauma, air leak and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Synchronous ventilation can potentially be achieved by…

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Association Between Early Lactate Levels and 30-Day Mortality in Clinically Suspected Sepsis in Children

Scott, et al, JAMA Pediatr. January 9, 2017.  Abstract Importance  Improving emergency care of pediatric sepsis is a public health priority, but optimal early diagnostic approaches are unclear. Measurement of lactate levels is associated with improved outcomes in adult septic shock, but pediatric guidelines do not endorse its use, in part because…

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Maternal Preferences for Vitamin D Supplementation in Breastfed Infants

Umaretiya, et al, annals of family medicine, 2016 Abstract Daily vitamin D supplementation is recommended for breastfed infants, but alternative methods include enriching breast milk with vitamin D through maternal supplementation or intermittent high-dose vitamin D. We determined maternal preferences for vitamin D supplementation in 140 mothers with exclusively breastfed…

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