Prophylactic Probiotics for Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

Olsen et al, Neonatology, Vol. 109, No. 2, 2016 Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major morbidity and cause of mortality in preterm neonates. Probiotics seem to have a beneficial role in preventing NEC, which is confirmed in meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We therefore aimed to review and confirm…

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Psychiatric Disorders and General Functioning in Low Birth Weight Adults: A Longitudinal Study

Lærum et al, Pediatrics, January 2017 Abstract OBJECTIVE: To examine psychiatric morbidity and overall functioning in adults born with low birth weight compared with normal birth weight controls at age 26 years and to study longitudinal trajectories of psychiatric morbidity from early adolescence to adulthood.  CONCLUSIONS: Low birth weight was a substantial…

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Synchronized mechanical ventilation for respiratory support in newborn infants

Greenough et al, September 2016, Cochrane Neonatal Group Background During synchronised mechanical ventilation, positive airway pressure and spontaneous inspiration coincide. If synchronous ventilation is provoked, adequate gas exchange should be achieved at lower peak airway pressures, potentially reducing baro/volutrauma, air leak and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Synchronous ventilation can potentially be achieved by…

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Association Between Early Lactate Levels and 30-Day Mortality in Clinically Suspected Sepsis in Children

Scott, et al, JAMA Pediatr. January 9, 2017.  Abstract Importance  Improving emergency care of pediatric sepsis is a public health priority, but optimal early diagnostic approaches are unclear. Measurement of lactate levels is associated with improved outcomes in adult septic shock, but pediatric guidelines do not endorse its use, in part because…

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Maternal Preferences for Vitamin D Supplementation in Breastfed Infants

Umaretiya, et al, annals of family medicine, 2016 Abstract Daily vitamin D supplementation is recommended for breastfed infants, but alternative methods include enriching breast milk with vitamin D through maternal supplementation or intermittent high-dose vitamin D. We determined maternal preferences for vitamin D supplementation in 140 mothers with exclusively breastfed…

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Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Neonatal Patients: An Update

Cernada et al, Neonatology 2014 Abstract Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious complication related to mechanical ventilation in the neonatal period. However, lack of a specific definition and difficulties obtaining noncontaminated samples of the lower respiratory airway render microbiological diagnosis and etiological treatment extremely difficult. Thus far, only few studies have…

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Comparing the Impact of Topical Application of Human Milk and Chlorhexidine on Cord Separation Time in Newborns

Abbaszadeh, et al, Pak J Med Sci. 2016 PAKISTANI STUDY Abstract Objectives: The best umbilical cord care after birth is a controversial issue. Aim of this research was to compare the effect of topical application of hu man milk and chlorhexidin on cord separation time in newborns. Conclusions: Topical application of…

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Bronchodilators for the prevention and treatment of chronic lung disease in preterm infants

Editorial Group: Cochrane Neonatal Group14 December 2016 Abstract Background Chronic lung disease (CLD) occurs frequently in preterm infants. Bronchodilators have the potential effect of dilating small a irways with muscle hypertrophy. Increased compliance and tidal volume and decreased pulmonary resistance have been documented with the use of bronchodilators in infants…

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Longchain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in preterm infants

Moon et al, Cochrane Neonatal Group, 20 December 2016 Abstract Background Controversy exists over whether longchain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are essential nutrients for preterm infants because they may not be able to synthesise sufficient amounts of LCPUFA to meet the needs of the developing brain and retina. Objectives To assess whether…

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Breastfeeding for procedural pain in infants beyond the neonatal period

Harrison et al, 28 October 2016 Cochrane Pain, Palliative and Supportive Care Group Abstract Background Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) show that breastfeeding newbo rn infants during painful procedures reduces pain. Mechanisms are considered to be multifactorial and include sucking, skin-to-skin contact, warmth, rocking, sound and smell of the mother, and possibly…

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Association of Neurodevelopmental Outcomes and Neonatal Morbidities of Extremely Premature Infants With Differential Exposure to Antenatal Steroids

Chawla et al,  JAMA Pediatr. 2016 Abstract Importance:  Many premature infants are born without exposure to antenatal steroids (ANS) or with incomplete courses. This study evaluates the dose-dependent effect of ANS on rates of neonatal morbidities and early childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely premature infants. Objective:  To compare rates of…

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Oral dextrose gel for the treatment of hypoglycaemia in newborn infants.

Weston et al, Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 May 4 Abstract BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypoglycaemia, a common condition, can be associated with brain injury. It is frequently managed by providing infants with an alternative source of glucose, given enterally with formula or intravenously with dextrose solution. This often requires that mother and…

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