Is mode of delivery associated with the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis?

Son et al, Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Sep Abstract BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis remains poorly understood. Different newborn bacterial colonization due to cesarean delivery as opposed to vaginal delivery has been implicated as one potential contributing factor. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether mode of delivery is…

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Kangaroo mother care to reduce morbidity and mortality in low birthweight infants.

Agudelo & Rossello, Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Aug 23; Abstract BACKGROUND: Kangaroo mother care (KMC), originally defined as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn, frequent and exclusive or nearly exclusive breastfeeding, and early discharge from hospital, has been proposed as an alternative to conventional neonatal care for low birthweight…

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Mortality of Neonatal Respiratory Failure from Chinese Northwest NICU Network

Zhang et al, J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016 Sep  Abstract OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of respiratory support and surfactant in incidence, management and outcome of neonatal respiratory failure (NRF) in Chinese emerging regional neonatal-perinatal care system in the era of universal health insurance policy. RESULTS: Among…

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MRI Evaluation and Safety in the Developing Brain

Tocchio et al, Semin Perinatol.  2015 Mar Abstract Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of the developing brain has dramatically increased over the last decade. Faster acquisitions and the development of advanced MRI sequences such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), perfusion imaging, functional MR imaging (fMRI), and susceptibility…

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Vitamin A supplementation to prevent mortality and short- and long-term morbidity in very low birth weight infants.

Darlow et al, Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Aug 22 Abstract BACKGROUND: Vitamin A is necessary for normal lung growth and the integrity of respiratory tract epithelial cells. Preterm infants have low vitamin A status at birth and this has been associated with an increased risk of developing chronic lung…

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Initial stabilisation of preterm infants: a new resuscitation system with low imposed work of breathing for use with face mask or nasal prongs

Donaldsson et al, Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2016 Aug 23. Abstract OBJECTIVE: T-piece resuscitation systems are pressure unstable and have high imposed work of breathing (iWOB). Pressure stable respiratorysupport with low iWOB might improve outcome. We have developed a new resuscitation system that can be used with nasal prongs…

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Synchronized mechanical ventilation for respiratory support in newborn infants.

Greenough et al, Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Sep (Cochrane review) Abstract BACKGROUND: During synchronised mechanical ventilation, positive airway pressure and spontaneous inspiration coincide. If synchronous ventilation is provoked, adequate gas exchange should be achieved at lower peak airway pressures, potentially reducing baro/volutrauma, air leak and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Synchronous ventilation can…

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Consensus conference on the appropriateness of palivizumab prophylaxis in respiratory syncytial virus disease

Pignotti et al, Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016 Sep 12 Abstract Respiratory syncytial virus infection represents a clinical burden among young children under 24 months. Palivizumab is the only drug licensed in Italy for the prevention of serious lower respiratory tract disease requiring hospitalization caused by respiratory syncytial virus in children at high…

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MANIPULATING THE DIET OF BREASTFEEDING MOTHERS TO RELIEVE THE SYMPTOMS OF INFANTILE COLIC: A PROOF OF CONCEPT STUDY

Iacovou et al, United European Gastroenterol J. 2015 Oct Introduction: Infantile colic is the most common complaint for which parents seek professional advice during the first months of life, and occurs in both breastfed and formula-fed infants. Mothers are often advised to avoid certain ‘gas-forming’ foods (e.g., onions or legumes) although…

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Distinguishing Arterial Ischemic Stroke From Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy in the Neonate at Birth

Adami et al, Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Sep 5 Abstract OBJECTIVE: To identify perinatal risk factors that can distinguish arterial ischemic stroke from hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy at birth. METHODS: This is a cohort study of all neonates born at 35 weeks of gestation or greater admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit from…

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Update on treatment of cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy and of the newborn with congenital cytomegalovirus

Rawlinson et al,  Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2016 Sep 7 (Australia) Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of review is to assess the recent studies of therapy of pregnant women and neonates, aimed at preventing the consequences of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. RECENT FINDINGS: A recent randomized controlled trial of treatment…

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Effect of a lactase preparation on lactose content and osmolality of preterm and term infant formulas

Carlson et al, JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1991 Sep-Oct Abstract Lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency often follows acute gastroenteritis. In such situations, a lactose-free formula may be indicated for preterm infants. Therefore, the effect of addition of lactase on the lactose content and osmolality of preterm and term infant…

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Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and the risk of febrile seizures and childhood epilepsy

Maimburg et al, Epilepsy Res. 2016 Aug Abstract PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to estimate the association between newborn children treated with phototerapy for hyperbilirubinemia and the subsequent risk of febrile seizures or epilepsy in early childhood. RESULTS: Newborns treated with phototherapy for hyperbilirubinemia had a higher risk…

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Respiratory Management of Newborns

Edited by Hany Aly and Hesham Abdel-Hady, InTech, Chapters published August 31, 2016  In this book, you’ll learn multiple new aspects of respiratory management of the newborn. For example, ventilator management of infants with unusually severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia and infants with omphalocele is discussed, as well as positioning of endotracheal…

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Ultrasound as a primary screening tool for detecting low birthweight newborns: A meta-analysis.

Goto, Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Aug Abstract BACKGROUND: As low birthweight (i.e., birthweight < 2500 g) is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity, the pre-delivery detection of low birthweight is clinically advantageous. This study was performed to determine whether ultrasound is suitable for use in primary screening to detect low birthweight newborns.…

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White matter injury following rotavirus infection in neonates: new aspects to a forgotten entity, ‘fifth day fits’?

Yeom & Park, Korean J Pediatr. 2016 Jul Abstract That rotavirus infection can cause neurological symptoms in young children has been well established. However, it is surprising why rotavirus infection has been overlooked as a cause of neonatal seizures for many years, despite significant research interest in neonatal rotavirus infection.…

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Preterm infant body composition cannot be accurately determined by weight and length

Kiger et al, J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 2016 Aug 29. Abstract BACKGROUND: Body composition is a key metric for assessing nutrition in preterm infants. In many neonatal intensive care units body composition is estimated using anthropometric indices which mathematically combine body weight and length. However, the accuracy of these indices…

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Morbidity and mortality associated with rewarming hypothermic very low birth weight infants

Feldman et al, J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 2016 Aug 29. Abstract OBJECTIVES: In very low birthweight (VLBW) infants, hypothermia is associated with poor outcomes. The goal of this study is to assess the relationship between the rate of rewarming these babies and their outcomes. RESULTS: Prolonged rewarming time was associate with increased…

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Selective head cooling during neonatal seizures prevents postictal cerebral vascular dysfunction without reducing epileptiform activity

Harsono et al, Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2016 Sep  Abstract Epileptic seizures in neonates cause cerebrovascular injury and impairment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation. In the bicuculline model of seizures in newborn pigs, we tested the hypothesis that selective head cooling prevents deleterious effects of seizures on…

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Evolution of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Parents of Very Preterm Infants During the Newborn Period

 Carmen et al, JAMA Pediatr. July 18, 2016.  ABSTRACT Importance:  Mothers experience heightened depression and anxiety following very preterm (VPT) birth, but how these symptoms evolve during the first months after birth is unknown. Research on the psychological adjustment of fathers following VPT birth is limited. Objectives:  To describe the trajectory…

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