Conventional Versus Prolonged Infusion of Meropenem in Neonates with Gram Negative Late Onset Sepsis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Shabaan, Nour, Eldegla, Nasef, Shouman, Abdel-Hady. Pedi­atr Infect Dis J. 2016 Nov 30. Abstract BACKGROUND: Gram-neg­a­tive bac­te­ria are asso­ci­at­ed with sig­nif­i­cant mor­bid­i­ty and mor­tal­i­ty in preterm and term new­borns. Meropen­em has wide­spread effi­ca­cy and often allows for monother­a­py in this group. Pro­longed infu­sion instead of infu­sion over 30 min­utes has…

Con­tin­ue read­ing

Haemodynamic Transition after Birth: A New Tool for Non-Invasive Cardiac Output Monitoring

Frei­dl et al, Neona­tol­ogy 2017 Abstract Back­ground: Sub­stan­tial haemo­dy­nam­ic changes occur dur­ing the first min­utes after birth. Cur­rent­ly, only heart rate (HR) and arte­r­i­al oxy­gen sat­u­ra­tion are rou­tine­ly used to mon­i­tor haemo­dy­nam­ic tran­si­tion after birth. Objec­tives: The aim of the present study was to con­tin­u­ous­ly assess haemo­dy­nam­ic changes dur­ing tran­si­tion in…

Con­tin­ue read­ing

Diagnosis Accuracy of Transcutaneous Bilirubinometry in Very Preterm Newborns

Rubio et al, Neona­tol­ogy 2017 Abstract Back­ground: Tran­scu­ta­neous biliru­bin (TcB) is a val­i­dat­ed test for sys­tem­at­ic screen­ing of neona­tal hyper­biliru­bine­mia and mon­i­tor­ing term and near-term infants under pho­tother­a­py. Objec­tives: To eval­u­ate TcB diag­nos­tic accu­ra­cy for very preterm neonates. Meth­ods: Total serum biliru­bin (TSB) and TcB mea­sure­ments were per­formed prospec­tive­ly in a…

Con­tin­ue read­ing

Maturation of the infant microbiome community structure and function across multiple body sites and in relation to mode of delivery

Chu et al, Nature Medicine(2017) Abstract Human micro­bial com­mu­ni­ties are char­ac­ter­ized by their tax­o­nom­ic, metage­nom­ic and meta­bol­ic diver­si­ty, which varies by dis­tinct body sites and influ­ences human phys­i­ol­o­gy. How­ev­er, when and how micro­bial com­mu­ni­ties with­in each body niche acquire unique tax­o­nom­i­cal and func­tion­al sig­na­tures in ear­ly life remains under­ex­plored. We con­clude…

Con­tin­ue read­ing

Association of Perinatal Risk Factors with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Getahun et al, Amer J Peri­na­tol, Jan, 2017 Abstract Objec­tive To exam­ine the asso­ci­a­tion between expo­sures to peri­na­tal fac­tors and autism spec­trum dis­or­ders (ASD). Con­clu­sion Expo­sure to antepar­tum or intra­partum com­pli­ca­tions increas­es the risk of ASD in the off­spring. There­fore, preg­nan­cy com­pli­ca­tions may help iden­ti­fy chil­dren who could ben­e­fit from ear­ly screen­ing and…

Con­tin­ue read­ing

Prophylactic Probiotics for Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

Olsen et al, Neona­tol­ogy, Vol. 109, No. 2, 2016 Back­ground: Necro­tiz­ing ente­ro­col­i­tis (NEC) is a major mor­bid­i­ty and cause of mor­tal­i­ty in preterm neonates. Pro­bi­otics seem to have a ben­e­fi­cial role in pre­vent­ing NEC, which is con­firmed in meta-analy­ses of ran­dom­ized con­trolled tri­als (RCTs). We there­fore aimed to review and con­firm…

Con­tin­ue read­ing

Maternal Influenza Immunization and Adverse Birth Outcomes

Phad­ke et al, Am J Epi­demi­ol. 2016 Mater­nal influen­za immu­niza­tion can reduce influen­za-attrib­ut­able mor­bid­i­ty and mor­tal­i­ty among preg­nant women and infants who are too young to be vac­ci­nat­ed. Data from empir­i­cal stud­ies also sup­port the hypoth­e­sis that immu­niza­tion can pro­tect the fetus against adverse out­comes if the moth­er is exposed to…

Con­tin­ue read­ing

Psychiatric Disorders and General Functioning in Low Birth Weight Adults: A Longitudinal Study

Lærum et al, Pedi­atrics, Jan­u­ary 2017 Abstract OBJECTIVE: To exam­ine psy­chi­atric mor­bid­i­ty and over­all func­tion­ing in adults born with low birth weight com­pared with nor­mal birth weight con­trols at age 26 years and to study lon­gi­tu­di­nal tra­jec­to­ries of psy­chi­atric mor­bid­i­ty from ear­ly ado­les­cence to adult­hood.  CONCLUSIONS: Low birth weight was a sub­stan­tial…

Con­tin­ue read­ing

Synchronized mechanical ventilation for respiratory support in newborn infants

Gree­nough et al, Sep­tem­ber 2016, Cochrane Neona­tal Group Back­ground Dur­ing syn­chro­nised mechan­i­cal ven­ti­la­tion, pos­i­tive air­way pres­sure and spon­ta­neous inspi­ra­tion coin­cide. If syn­chro­nous ven­ti­la­tion is pro­voked, ade­quate gas exchange should be achieved at low­er peak air­way pres­sures, poten­tial­ly reduc­ing baro/volutrauma, air leak and bron­chopul­monary dys­pla­sia. Syn­chro­nous ven­ti­la­tion can poten­tial­ly be achieved by…

Con­tin­ue read­ing

Association Between Early Lactate Levels and 30-Day Mortality in Clinically Suspected Sepsis in Children

Scott, et al, JAMA Pedi­atr. Jan­u­ary 9, 2017.  Abstract Impor­tance  Improv­ing emer­gency care of pedi­atric sep­sis is a pub­lic health pri­or­i­ty, but opti­mal ear­ly diag­nos­tic approach­es are unclear. Mea­sure­ment of lac­tate lev­els is asso­ci­at­ed with improved out­comes in adult sep­tic shock, but pedi­atric guide­lines do not endorse its use, in part because…

Con­tin­ue read­ing

Maternal Preferences for Vitamin D Supplementation in Breastfed Infants

Umaretiya, et al, annals of fam­i­ly med­i­cine, 2016 Abstract Dai­ly vit­a­min D sup­ple­men­ta­tion is rec­om­mend­ed for breast­fed infants, but alter­na­tive meth­ods include enrich­ing breast milk with vit­a­min D through mater­nal sup­ple­men­ta­tion or inter­mit­tent high-dose vit­a­min D. We deter­mined mater­nal pref­er­ences for vit­a­min D sup­ple­men­ta­tion in 140 moth­ers with exclu­sive­ly breast­fed…

Con­tin­ue read­ing

Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Neonatal Patients: An Update

Cer­na­da et al, Neona­tol­ogy 2014 Abstract Ven­ti­la­tor-asso­ci­at­ed pneu­mo­nia (VAP) is a seri­ous com­pli­ca­tion relat­ed to mechan­i­cal ven­ti­la­tion in the neona­tal peri­od. How­ev­er, lack of a spe­cif­ic def­i­n­i­tion and dif­fi­cul­ties obtain­ing non­con­t­a­m­i­nat­ed sam­ples of the low­er res­pi­ra­to­ry air­way ren­der micro­bi­o­log­i­cal diag­no­sis and eti­o­log­i­cal treat­ment extreme­ly dif­fi­cult. Thus far, only few stud­ies have…

Con­tin­ue read­ing

Comparing the Impact of Topical Application of Human Milk and Chlorhexidine on Cord Separation Time in Newborns

Abbaszadeh, et al, Pak J Med Sci. 2016 PAKISTANI STUDY Abstract Objec­tives: The best umbil­i­cal cord care after birth is a con­tro­ver­sial issue. Aim of this research was to com­pare the effect of top­i­cal appli­ca­tion of hu man milk and chlorhex­i­din on cord sep­a­ra­tion time in new­borns. Con­clu­sions: Top­i­cal appli­ca­tion of…

Con­tin­ue read­ing

Bronchodilators for the prevention and treatment of chronic lung disease in preterm infants

Edi­to­r­i­al Group: Cochrane Neona­tal Group14 Decem­ber 2016 Abstract Back­ground Chron­ic lung dis­ease (CLD) occurs fre­quent­ly in preterm infants. Bron­chodila­tors have the poten­tial effect of dilat­ing small a irways with mus­cle hyper­tro­phy. Increased com­pli­ance and tidal vol­ume and decreased pul­monary resis­tance have been doc­u­ment­ed with the use of bron­chodila­tors in infants…

Con­tin­ue read­ing

Longchain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in preterm infants

Moon et al, Cochrane Neona­tal Group, 20 Decem­ber 2016 Abstract Back­ground Con­tro­ver­sy exists over whether longchain polyun­sat­u­rat­ed fat­ty acids (LCPUFA) are essen­tial nutri­ents for preterm infants because they may not be able to syn­the­sise suf­fi­cient amounts of LCPUFA to meet the needs of the devel­op­ing brain and reti­na. Objec­tives To assess whether…

Con­tin­ue read­ing

Breastfeeding for procedural pain in infants beyond the neonatal period

Har­ri­son et al, 28 Octo­ber 2016 Cochrane Pain, Pal­lia­tive and Sup­port­ive Care Group Abstract Back­ground Ran­domised con­trolled tri­als (RCTs) show that breast­feed­ing new­bo rn infants dur­ing painful pro­ce­dures reduces pain. Mech­a­nisms are con­sid­ered to be mul­ti­fac­to­r­i­al and include suck­ing, skin-to-skin con­tact, warmth, rock­ing, sound and smell of the moth­er, and pos­si­bly…

Con­tin­ue read­ing

Association of Neurodevelopmental Outcomes and Neonatal Morbidities of Extremely Premature Infants With Differential Exposure to Antenatal Steroids

Chawla et al,  JAMA Pedi­atr. 2016 Abstract Impor­tance:  Many pre­ma­ture infants are born with­out expo­sure to ante­na­tal steroids (ANS) or with incom­plete cours­es. This study eval­u­ates the dose-depen­dent effect of ANS on rates of neona­tal mor­bidi­ties and ear­ly child­hood neu­rode­vel­op­men­tal out­comes of extreme­ly pre­ma­ture infants. Objec­tive:  To com­pare rates of…

Con­tin­ue read­ing

Oral dextrose gel for the treatment of hypoglycaemia in newborn infants.

West­on et al, Cochrane Data­base Syst Rev. 2016 May 4 Abstract BACKGROUND: Neona­tal hypo­gly­caemia, a com­mon con­di­tion, can be asso­ci­at­ed with brain injury. It is fre­quent­ly man­aged by pro­vid­ing infants with an alter­na­tive source of glu­cose, giv­en enter­al­ly with for­mu­la or intra­venous­ly with dex­trose solu­tion. This often requires that moth­er and…

Con­tin­ue read­ing

Intussusception Rates Before and After the Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccine.

Tate et al, Pedi­atrics 2016 Abstract BACKGROUND: Recent US stud­ies have iden­ti­fied a small increased risk of intus­sus­cep­tion after rotavirus vac­ci­na­tion, main­ly after the first dose. We exam­ined trends in intus­sus­cep­tion hos­pi­tal­iza­tions before (2000–2005) and after (2007–2013) rotavirus vac­cine intro­duc­tion to assess whether this observed tem­po­ral risk trans­lates into more…

Con­tin­ue read­ing

Differences Between Transcutaneous and Serum Bilirubin Measurements in Black African Neonates

Bola­joko et al, Pedi­atrics, August 2016 Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Tran­scu­ta­neous biliru­bin (TcB) cor­re­lates pos­i­tive­ly with total serum biliru­bin (TSB) across dif­fer­ent racial pop­u­la­tions. How­ev­er, lit­tle is known about the pat­tern of diver­gence between TcB and TSB at indi­vid­ual patient-lev­el and the rela­tion­ship with TcB mea­sur­ing tech­niques among African neonates. This…

Con­tin­ue read­ing

Changing the Definition of Critical Heart Disease in the Newborn

Słod­ki; J Peri­na­tol. 2016 Abstract Infants born with con­gen­i­tal heart dis­ease (CHD) may require emer­gent treat­ment in the new­born peri­od. These infants are like­ly to ben­e­fit the most from a pre­na­tal diag­no­sis, which allows for opti­mal peri­na­tal plan­ning. Sev­er­al car­diac cen­ters have cre­at­ed guide­lines for the man­age­ment of these high-risk patients…

Con­tin­ue read­ing

Burden and Outcomes of Severe Pertussis Infection in Critically Ill Infants

Straney, et al, Pedi­atr Crit Care Med. 2016 Abstract Objec­tives: Despite World Health Orga­ni­za­tion endorsed immu­niza­tion sched­ules, Bor­de­tel­la per­tus­sis con­tinu es to cause severe infec­tions, pre­dom­i­nant­ly in infants. There is a lack of data on the fre­quen­cy and out­come of severe per­tus­sis infec­tions in infants requir­ing ICU admis­sion. We aimed to…

Con­tin­ue read­ing

Risk of Preterm or Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth After Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy

Vazquez-Ben­itez et al, Am J Epi­demi­ol. 2016 Abstract Vac­cines are increas­ing­ly tar­get­ed to ward women of repro­duc­tive age, and vac­cines to pre­vent influen­za and per­tus­sis are rec­om­mend­ed dur­ing preg­nan­cy. Pre­li­cen­sure clin­i­cal tri­als typ­i­cal­ly have not includ­ed preg­nant women, and when they are includ­ed, tri­als can­not detect rare events. Thus, post­mar­ket­ing vac­cine…

Con­tin­ue read­ing