Vitamin A supplementation to prevent mortality and short- and long-term morbidity in very low birth weight infants.

Dar­low et al, Cochrane Data­base Syst Rev. 2016 Aug 22 Abstract BACKGROUND: Vit­a­min A is nec­es­sary for nor­mal lung growth and the integri­ty of res­pi­ra­to­ry tract epithe­lial cells. Preterm infants have low vit­a­min A sta­tus at birth and this has been asso­ci­at­ed with an increased risk of devel­op­ing chron­ic lung…

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Initial stabilisation of preterm infants: a new resuscitation system with low imposed work of breathing for use with face mask or nasal prongs

Don­alds­son et al, Arch Dis Child Fetal Neona­tal Ed. 2016 Aug 23. Abstract OBJECTIVE: T-piece resus­ci­ta­tion sys­tems are pres­sure unsta­ble and have high imposed work of breath­ing (iWOB). Pres­sure sta­ble res­pi­ra­to­ry­sup­port with low iWOB might improve out­come. We have devel­oped a new resus­ci­ta­tion sys­tem that can be used with nasal prongs…

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Synchronized mechanical ventilation for respiratory support in newborn infants.

Gree­nough et al, Cochrane Data­base Syst Rev. 2016 Sep (Cochrane review) Abstract BACKGROUND: Dur­ing syn­chro­nised mechan­i­cal ven­ti­la­tion, pos­i­tive air­way pres­sure and spon­ta­neous inspi­ra­tion coin­cide. If syn­chro­nous ven­ti­la­tion is pro­voked, ade­quate gas exchange should be achieved at low­er peak air­way pres­sures, poten­tial­ly reduc­ing baro/volutrauma, air leak and bron­chopul­monary dys­pla­sia. Syn­chro­nous ven­ti­la­tion can…

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Consensus conference on the appropriateness of palivizumab prophylaxis in respiratory syncytial virus disease

Pig­not­ti et al, Pedi­atr Pul­monol. 2016 Sep 12 Abstract Res­pi­ra­to­ry syn­cy­tial virus infec­tion rep­re­sents a clin­i­cal bur­den among young chil­dren under 24 months. Palivizum­ab is the only drug licensed in Italy for the pre­ven­tion of seri­ous low­er res­pi­ra­to­ry tract dis­ease requir­ing hos­pi­tal­iza­tion caused by res­pi­ra­to­ry syn­cy­tial virus in chil­dren at high…

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MANIPULATING THE DIET OF BREASTFEEDING MOTHERS TO RELIEVE THE SYMPTOMS OF INFANTILE COLIC: A PROOF OF CONCEPT STUDY

Iacov­ou et al, Unit­ed Euro­pean Gas­troen­terol J. 2015 Oct Intro­duc­tion: Infan­tile col­ic is the most com­mon com­plaint for which par­ents seek pro­fes­sion­al advice dur­ing the first months of life, and occurs in both breast­fed and for­mu­la-fed infants. Moth­ers are often advised to avoid cer­tain ‘gas-form­ing’ foods (e.g., onions or legumes) although…

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Mothers massaging their newborns with lotion versus no lotion enhances mothers’ and newborns’ sleep

Field et al, Infant Behav Dev. 2016 Sep ABSTRACT Sleep is fre­quent­ly inter­rupt­ed in new­borns and their moth­ers. Mas­sage ther­a­py is not­ed to facil­i­tate sleep in adults and infants. Infant mas­sage has also been more effec­tive with oil ver­sus no oil. In this study 76 moth­ers of new­borns were ran­dom­ly assigned…

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Distinguishing Arterial Ischemic Stroke From Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy in the Neonate at Birth

Ada­mi et al, Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Sep 5 Abstract OBJECTIVE: To iden­ti­fy peri­na­tal risk fac­tors that can dis­tin­guish arte­r­i­al ischemic stroke from hypox­ic-ischemic encephalopa­thy at birth. METHODS: This is a cohort study of all neonates born at 35 weeks of ges­ta­tion or greater admit­ted to our neona­tal inten­sive care unit from…

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Update on treatment of cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy and of the newborn with congenital cytomegalovirus

Rawl­in­son et al,  Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2016 Sep 7 (Aus­tralia) Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The pur­pose of review is to assess the recent stud­ies of ther­a­py of preg­nant women and neonates, aimed at pre­vent­ing the con­se­quences of con­gen­i­tal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infec­tion. RECENT FINDINGS: A recent ran­dom­ized con­trolled tri­al of treat­ment…

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Effect of a lactase preparation on lactose content and osmolality of preterm and term infant formulas

Carl­son et al, JPEN J Par­enter Enter­al Nutr. 1991 Sep-Oct Abstract Lac­tose intol­er­ance due to lac­tase defi­cien­cy often fol­lows acute gas­troen­teri­tis. In such sit­u­a­tions, a lac­tose-free for­mu­la may be indi­cat­ed for preterm infants. There­fore, the effect of addi­tion of lac­tase on the lac­tose con­tent and osmo­lal­i­ty of preterm and term infant…

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Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and the risk of febrile seizures and childhood epilepsy

Maim­burg et al, Epilep­sy Res. 2016 Aug Abstract PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to esti­mate the asso­ci­a­tion between new­born chil­dren treat­ed with pho­toter­apy for hyper­biliru­bine­mia and the sub­se­quent risk of febrile seizures or epilep­sy in ear­ly child­hood. RESULTS: New­borns treat­ed with pho­tother­a­py for hyper­biliru­bine­mia had a high­er risk…

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Respiratory Management of Newborns

Edit­ed by Hany Aly and Hes­ham Abdel-Hady, InTech, Chap­ters pub­lished August 31, 2016  In this book, you’ll learn mul­ti­ple new aspects of res­pi­ra­to­ry man­age­ment of the new­born. For exam­ple, ven­ti­la­tor man­age­ment of infants with unusu­al­ly severe bron­chopul­monary dys­pla­sia and infants with omphalo­cele is dis­cussed, as well as posi­tion­ing of endo­tra­cheal…

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Ultrasound as a primary screening tool for detecting low birthweight newborns: A meta-analysis.

Goto, Med­i­cine (Bal­ti­more). 2016 Aug Abstract BACKGROUND: As low birth­weight (i.e., birth­weight < 2500 g) is a major deter­mi­nant of neona­tal mor­tal­i­ty and mor­bid­i­ty, the pre-deliv­ery detec­tion of low birth­weight is clin­i­cal­ly advan­ta­geous. This study was per­formed to deter­mine whether ultra­sound is suit­able for use in pri­ma­ry screen­ing to detect low birth­weight new­borns.…

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White matter injury following rotavirus infection in neonates: new aspects to a forgotten entity, ‘fifth day fits’?

Yeom & Park, Kore­an J Pedi­atr. 2016 Jul Abstract That rotavirus infec­tion can cause neu­ro­log­i­cal symp­toms in young chil­dren has been well estab­lished. How­ev­er, it is sur­pris­ing why rotavirus infec­tion has been over­looked as a cause of neona­tal seizures for many years, despite sig­nif­i­cant research inter­est in neona­tal rotavirus infec­tion.…

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Neonatal listeriosis: Uncommon or misdiagnosed?

Kylat et al, J Neona­tal Peri­na­tal Med. 2016 Aug 29. Abstract Lis­te­rio­sis is an uncom­mon food­borne infec­tion. Peri­na­tal lis­te­rio­sis is under­es­ti­mat­ed due the num­ber of undi­ag­nosed still births. It can cause pre­ma­tu­ri­ty and neona­tal lis­te­rio­sis (NL) has the poten­tial to be mis­di­ag­nosed. NL has a sig­nif­i­cant mor­tal­i­ty and neu­ro­log­i­cal seque­lae.…

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Preterm infant body composition cannot be accurately determined by weight and length

Kiger et al, J Neona­tal Peri­na­tal Med. 2016 Aug 29. Abstract BACKGROUND: Body com­po­si­tion is a key met­ric for assess­ing nutri­tion in preterm infants. In many neona­tal inten­sive care units body com­po­si­tion is esti­mat­ed using anthro­po­met­ric indices which math­e­mat­i­cal­ly com­bine body weight and length. How­ev­er, the accu­ra­cy of these indices…

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Necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants and newborns

Mϋller et al, J Neona­tal Peri­na­tal Med. 2016 Aug 29. (Ger­man) Abstract Necro­tiz­ing ente­ro­col­i­tis (NEC) is the most com­mon acquired dis­ease of the gas­troin­testi­nal tract (GIT) in pre­ma­ture infants and new­borns. It is defined as an ulcer­a­tive inflam­ma­tion of the intesti­nal wall. The clin­i­cal signs of incip­i­ent NEC are often very dis­crete,…

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Morbidity and mortality associated with rewarming hypothermic very low birth weight infants

Feld­man et al, J Neona­tal Peri­na­tal Med. 2016 Aug 29. Abstract OBJECTIVES: In very low birth­weight (VLBW) infants, hypother­mia is asso­ci­at­ed with poor out­comes. The goal of this study is to assess the rela­tion­ship between the rate of rewarm­ing these babies and their out­comes. RESULTS: Pro­longed rewarm­ing time was asso­ciate with increased…

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Selective head cooling during neonatal seizures prevents postictal cerebral vascular dysfunction without reducing epileptiform activity

Har­sono et al, Am J Phys­i­ol Heart Circ Phys­i­ol. 2016 Sep  Abstract Epilep­tic seizures in neonates cause cere­brovas­cu­lar injury and impair­ment of cere­bral blood flow (CBF) reg­u­la­tion. In the bicu­culline mod­el of seizures in new­born pigs, we test­ed the hypoth­e­sis that selec­tive head cool­ing pre­vents dele­te­ri­ous effects of seizures on…

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Evolution of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Parents of Very Preterm Infants During the Newborn Period

 Car­men et al, JAMA Pedi­atr. July 18, 2016.  ABSTRACT Impor­tance:  Moth­ers expe­ri­ence height­ened depres­sion and anx­i­ety fol­low­ing very preterm (VPT) birth, but how these symp­toms evolve dur­ing the first months after birth is unknown. Research on the psy­cho­log­i­cal adjust­ment of fathers fol­low­ing VPT birth is lim­it­ed. Objec­tives:  To describe the tra­jec­to­ry…

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Neonatal endotracheal intubation: How to make it more baby friendly.

Mahesh­wari et al, J Pae­di­a­tr Child Health. 2016 May Neona­tal endo­tra­cheal intu­ba­tion is com­mon­ly accom­pa­nied by sig­nif­i­cant dis­tur­bances in phys­i­o­log­i­cal para­me­ters. The pro­ce­dure is often poor­ly tol­er­at­ed, and mul­ti­ple attempts are com­mon­ly required before the air­way is secured. Adverse phys­i­o­log­i­cal effects include hypox­emia, brady­car­dia, hyper­ten­sion, ele­va­tion in intracra­nial pres­sure and pos­si­bly…

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Acetaminophen use in pregnancy and neurodevelopment: attention function and autism spectrum symptoms.

Gar­cia et al, Int J Epi­demi­ol. 2016 Jun 28. Abstract BACKGROUND: Aceta­minophen is exten­sive­ly used dur­ing preg­nan­cy. But there is a lack of pop­u­la­tion-rep­re­sen­ta­tive cohort stud­ies eval­u­at­ing its effects on a range of neu­ropsy­cho­log­i­cal and behav­iour­al end­points. We aimed to assess whether pre­na­tal expo­sure to aceta­minophen is adverse­ly asso­ci­at­ed with neu­rode­vel­op­men­tal out­comes…

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Use of intravenous immunoglobulin in neonates at a tertiary academic hospital: a retrospective 11-year study.

Lieber­man et al, Trans­fu­sion. 2016 Jul 26 Abstract BACKGROUND: Intra­venous immunoglob­u­lin (IVIG) is used to treat a vari­ety of dis­eases in the neona­tal inten­sive care unit (NICU). Although audits have report­ed on the spec­trum of IVIG use in adults, the indi­ca­tions and uti­liza­tion in neonates has not been inves­ti­gat­ed. The objec­tives…

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Diagnosis Accuracy of Transcutaneous Bilirubinometry in Very Preterm Newborns

Rubio et al, Neona­tol­ogy. 2016 Aug  Abstract BACKGROUND: Tran­scu­ta­neous biliru­bin (TcB) is a val­i­dat­ed test for sys­tem­at­ic screen­ing of neona­tal hyper­biliru­bine­mia and mon­i­tor­ing term and near-term infants under pho­tother­a­py. OBJECTIVES: To eval­u­ate TcB diag­nos­tic accu­ra­cy for very preterm neonates. CONCLUSION: Among very preterm babies, TcB mea­sure­ments might be use­ful for screen­ing for neona­tal jaun­dice…

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