Acetaminophen use in pregnancy and neurodevelopment: attention function and autism spectrum symptoms.

Gar­cia et al, Int J Epi­demi­ol. 2016 Jun 28. Abstract BACKGROUND: Aceta­minophen is exten­sive­ly used dur­ing preg­nan­cy. But there is a lack of pop­u­la­tion-rep­re­sen­ta­tive cohort stud­ies eval­u­at­ing its effects on a range of neu­ropsy­cho­log­i­cal and behav­iour­al end­points. We aimed to assess whether pre­na­tal expo­sure to aceta­minophen is adverse­ly asso­ci­at­ed with neu­rode­vel­op­men­tal out­comes…

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Use of intravenous immunoglobulin in neonates at a tertiary academic hospital: a retrospective 11-year study.

Lieber­man et al, Trans­fu­sion. 2016 Jul 26 Abstract BACKGROUND: Intra­venous immunoglob­u­lin (IVIG) is used to treat a vari­ety of dis­eases in the neona­tal inten­sive care unit (NICU). Although audits have report­ed on the spec­trum of IVIG use in adults, the indi­ca­tions and uti­liza­tion in neonates has not been inves­ti­gat­ed. The objec­tives…

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Diagnosis Accuracy of Transcutaneous Bilirubinometry in Very Preterm Newborns

Rubio et al, Neona­tol­ogy. 2016 Aug  Abstract BACKGROUND: Tran­scu­ta­neous biliru­bin (TcB) is a val­i­dat­ed test for sys­tem­at­ic screen­ing of neona­tal hyper­biliru­bine­mia and mon­i­tor­ing term and near-term infants under pho­tother­a­py. OBJECTIVES: To eval­u­ate TcB diag­nos­tic accu­ra­cy for very preterm neonates. CONCLUSION: Among very preterm babies, TcB mea­sure­ments might be use­ful for screen­ing for neona­tal jaun­dice…

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MEDICATION MANAGEMENT OF THE EXTREMELY PREMATURE NEONATETHE IMPACT OF A SPECIALIST PHARMACIST

Whit­field et al, Arch Dis Child. 2016 Sep Abstract AIM: To present a case of an extreme­ly pre­ma­ture infant and the role that the spe­cial­ist neona­tal phar­ma­cist has on the qual­i­ty of care of these patients. METHOD: Inter­ven­tions and rec­om­men­da­tions made by the phar­ma­cists over the admis­sion of a triplet born at…

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Red Blood Cell Transfusion and Clinical Outcomes in Extremely Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants.

Wang et al, Pedi­atr Neona­tol. 2016 Jul 5 Abstract BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) trans­fu­sion is often con­sid­ered a life-sav­ing mea­sure in crit­i­cal­ly ill neonates. The small­est and least mature infants tend to receive the largest amount of trans­fu­sions. RBC trans­fu­sion itself has also been sug­gest­ed as an inde­pen­dent risk fac­tor…

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Cord blood leptin and gains in body weight and fat mass during infancy.

Chaoimh et al, Eur J Endocrinol. 2016 Aug 15 Abstract OBJECTIVES: Low ear­ly-life lep­tin con­cen­tra­tions may pro­mote faster weight gain in infan­cy. We aimed to exam­ine asso­ci­a­tions cord blood lep­tin con­cen­tra­tions and changes in weight and body com­po­si­tion dur­ing infan­cy.  CONCLUSION: These are the first data to show that asso­ci­a­tions between…

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POSTNATAL SERUM INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I AND RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY

Jensen et al, Reti­na. 2016 Aug 12 Abstract PURPOSE: Low serum IGF-1 has been asso­ci­at­ed with devel­op­ment of severe ROP, but no U.S. stud­ies have been report­ed. We sought to deter­mine the rela­tion­ship between post­na­tal serum IGF-1 lev­els and severe ROP in a racial­ly diverse U.S. CONCLUSION: The pres­ence and tim­ing of…

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ELBW survivors in early adulthood have higher hepatic, pancreatic and subcutaneous fat

Crane et al, Sci Rep. 2016 Aug  Abstract Pre­ma­ture birth in con­junc­tion with extreme­ly low birth weight (<1 kg, ELBW) is asso­ci­at­ed with insulin resis­tance and increased car­diometa­bol­ic health risk com­pared to birth at full term with nor­mal birth weight (NBW). How­ev­er, lit­tle is known regard­ing the bio­log­ic medi­a­tors of these effects.…

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Enemas, suppositories and rectal stimulation are not effective in accelerating enteral feeding or meconium evacuation in low birth weight infants: A systematic review.

Kam­phorst et al, Acta Pae­di­a­tr. 2016 Aug 10 Abstract Ear­ly full enter­al feed­ing in preterm infants decreas­es mor­bid­i­ty and mor­tal­i­ty. Our sys­tem­at­ic review cov­ered the effec­tive­ness of rec­tal stim­u­la­tion, sup­pos­i­to­ries and ene­mas on stool­ing pat­terns and feed­ing tol­er­ance in low birth weight infants born at up to 32 weeks. It com­prised sev­en…

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Cycled light in the intensive care unit for preterm and low birth weight infants

Mor­ag & Ohls­son, Cochrane Data­base Syst Rev. 2016 Aug 10 BACKGROUND: Poten­tial ben­e­fits and harms of dif­fer­ent light­ing in neona­tal units have not been quan­ti­fied. OBJECTIVES: To deter­mine effec­tive­ness and safe­ty of cycled light (CL) (approx­i­mate­ly 12 hours of light on and 12 hours of light off) for growth in preterm infants at…

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To compare growth outcomes and cost effectiveness of ‘Kangaroo Ward Care’ with ‘Intermediate Intensive Care’ in stable extremely low birth weight infants: Randomized control trial.

Shar­ma et al, J Matern Fetal Neona­tal Med. 2016 Aug  Abstract AIMS: To com­pare growth out­come and cost effec­tive­ness of ‘Kan­ga­roo ward care’ with ‘Inter­me­di­ate inten­sive care’ in sta­ble extreme­ly low birth weight (ELBW) infants. RESULTS: The gain in weight (gm/day), length (cm/ week) and head cir­cum­fer­ence (cm/week) were com­pa­ra­ble between the…

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Maternal vitamin D levels during pregnancy and neonatal health: evidence to date and clinical implications.

Kar­ras et al, Ther Adv Mus­cu­loskelet Dis. 2016 Aug Abstract Low mater­nal vit­a­min D lev­els dur­ing preg­nan­cy have been asso­ci­at­ed with a pletho­ra of adverse neona­tal out­comes, includ­ing small for ges­ta­tion­al age and preterm births, detri­men­tal effect on off­spring bone and teeth devel­op­ment, and risk of infec­tious dis­eases. Although most obser­va­tion­al stud­ies…

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Impact of High-Flow Nasal Cannula Use on Neonatal Respiratory Support Patterns and Length of Stay

Hoff­man et al, Respir Care. 2016 Jul 26 Abstract BACKGROUND: Heat­ed humid­i­fied high-flow nasal can­nu­la (HFNC) is thought to be com­pa­ra­ble with nasal CPAP. The effect of mul­ti­modal­i­ty mid-lev­el res­pi­ra­to­ry sup­port use in the neona­tal ICU is unknown. The objec­tive of this work was to eval­u­ate the effect of intro­duc­ing HFNC

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Vitamin D and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants.

Joung et al, J Peri­na­tol. 2016 Jul 28 Abstract OBJECTIVE: Vit­a­min D defi­cien­cy is asso­ci­at­ed with asth­ma and reac­tive air­way dis­ease in child­hood but its poten­tial con­tri­bu­tion to bron­chopul­monary dys­pla­sia (BPD) in preterm infants is unknown. Preterm infants have low­er lev­els of 25-hydrox­yvi­t­a­min D (25(OH)D) at birth and are at risk for…

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Intubation Attempts Increase the Risk for Severe Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Preterm Infants-A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Sauer et al, J Pedi­atr. 2016 Jul 25  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To eval­u­ate whether neonates e xposed to mul­ti­ple intu­ba­tion attempts with­in the first 4 days after birth have an increased inci­dence of intra­ven­tric­u­lar hem­or­rhage (IVH). RESULTS: A total of 308 infants with BW <1500 g, includ­ing 102 with a BW <750 g, were…

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Comparison of a Powdered, Acidified Liquid, and Non-Acidified Liquid Human Milk Fortifier on Clinical Outcomes in Premature Infants.

Thoene et al, Nutri­ents. 2016 Jul 26 Pre­ma­ture infants have sig­nif­i­cant­ly increased nutri­ent needs com­pared to those born at term . Nutri­tion-relat­ed goals for these infants must aim at pro­mot­ing sim­i­lar nutri­ent pro­vi­sion and growth as that achieved in utero. Pro­vid­ing human milk remains a prefer­able nutri­ent source over cus­tomized pre­ma­ture…

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Neonatal Plasma Transfusion: An Evidence-Based Review

Keir & Stan­worth, Trans­fus Med Rev. 2016 Jul Abstract Sev­er­al clin­i­cal sce­nar­ios for plas­ma trans­fu­sion are repeat­ed­ly iden­ti­fied in audits, includ­ing treat­ment of bleed­ing in asso­ci­a­tion with lab­o­ra­to­ry evi­dence of coag­u­lopa­thy, cor­rec­tion of dis­sem­i­nat­ed intravas­cu­lar coag­u­la­tion, pre­ven­tion of intra­ven­tric­u­lar hem­or­rhage, man­age­ment of crit­i­cal­ly ill neonates (eg, dur­ing sep­sis or as a vol­ume…

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Challenges, Priorities and Novel Therapies for Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure and Pulmonary Hypertension in the Neonate

Aschn­er et al, Jour­nal of Peri­na­tol­ogy : J Peri­na­tol. 2016  Future pri­or­i­ties for the man­age­ment of hypox­emic res­pi­ra­to­ry fail­ure (HRF) and pul­monary hyper­ten­sion include pri­ma­ry pre­ven­tion of neona­tal lung dis­eases, ‘pre­ci­sion med­i­cine’ and trans­lat­ing promis­ing clin­i­cal and pre­clin­i­cal research into nov­el ther­a­pies. Promis­ing areas of inves­ti­ga­tion include non­in­va­sive ven­ti­la­tion strate­gies, emerg­ing pul­monary vasodila­tors…

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Clinical Significance of Slightly Lateral Ventricular Enlargement in Healthy Infants

Minowa et al, J Matern Fetal Neona­tal Med. 2016 Jul Abstract OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to deter­mine the clin­i­cal sig­nif­i­cance of slight­ly lat­er­al ven­tric­u­lar enlarge­ment. METHODS:  1,151 infants were exam­ined with a ges­ta­tion­al age of 36 weeks or greater. The pres­ence of ven­tric­u­lar enlarge­ment was assessed when appar­ent space was…

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Biphasic Positive Airway Pressure or Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A Randomized Trial

Vic­tor et al, Pedi­atrics, July 2016 Abstract BACKGROUND: There is cur­rent­ly no clear evi­dence that nasal-bipha­sic pos­i­tive air­way pres­sure (n-BiPAP) con­fers any advan­tage over nasal-con­tin­u­ous pos­i­tive air­way pres­sure (n-CPAP). Our hypoth­e­sis was that preterm infants born before 30 weeks’ ges­ta­tion and <2 weeks old when extu­bat­ed onto n-BiPAP will have…

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Clinical Significance of Slightly Lateral Ventricular Enlargement in Healthy Infants.

Minowa et al, J Matern Fetal Neona­tal Med. 2016 Jul 18 Abstract OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to deter­mine the clin­i­cal sig­nif­i­cance of slight­ly lat­er­al ven­tric­u­lar enlarge­ment. METHODS: 1,151 infants with a ges­ta­tion­al age of 36 weeks or greater, by a trans­fontanel ultra­sound scan. RESULTS: Two hun­dred forty-eight infants had ven­tric­u­lar enlarge­ment. The…

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Impact of pulmonary hypertension on neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a cohort study.

Nakan­ishi et al, J Peri­na­tol. 2016 Jul 21 Abstract OBJECTIVES: To eval­u­ate the impact of pul­monary hyper­ten­sion (PH) on long-term growth and neu­rode­vel­op­men­tal out­comes of extreme­ly preterm infants with bron­chopul­monary dys­pla­sia (BPD). RESULTS: Six­ty-two infants with­out BPD, 60 with BPD with­out PH and 20 with BPD with PH were ana­lyzed. Regard­less of PH sta­tus,…

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Sucrose for analgesia in newborn infants undergoing painful procedures

Stevens et al, Cochrane Data­base Syst Rev. 2016 Jul 16 Abstract BACKGROUND: Admin­is­tra­tion of oral sucrose with and with­out non-nutri­tive suck­ing is the most fre­quent­ly stud­ied non-phar­ma­co­log­i­cal inter­ven­tion for pro­ce­dur­al pain relief in neonates. OBJECTIVES: To deter­mine the effi­ca­cy, effect of dose, method of admin­is­tra­tion and safe­ty of sucrose for reliev­ing pro­ce­dur­al pain in…

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