Comparison of a Powdered, Acidified Liquid, and Non-Acidified Liquid Human Milk Fortifier on Clinical Outcomes in Premature Infants.

Thoene et al, Nutrients. 2016 Jul 26 Premature infants have significantly increased nutrient needs compared to those born at term . Nutrition-related goals for these infants must aim at promoting similar nutrient provision and growth as that achieved in utero. Providing human milk remains a preferable nutrient source over customized premature…

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Neonatal Plasma Transfusion: An Evidence-Based Review

Keir & Stanworth, Transfus Med Rev. 2016 Jul Abstract Several clinical scenarios for plasma transfusion are repeatedly identified in audits, including treatment of bleeding in association with laboratory evidence of coagulopathy, correction of disseminated intravascular coagulation, prevention of intraventricular hemorrhage, management of critically ill neonates (eg, during sepsis or as a volume…

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Challenges, Priorities and Novel Therapies for Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure and Pulmonary Hypertension in the Neonate

Aschner et al, Journal of Perinatology : J Perinatol. 2016  Future priorities for the management of hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF) and pulmonary hypertension include primary prevention of neonatal lung diseases, ‘precision medicine’ and translating promising clinical and preclinical research into novel therapies. Promising areas of investigation include noninvasive ventilation strategies, emerging pulmonary vasodilators…

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Clinical Significance of Slightly Lateral Ventricular Enlargement in Healthy Infants

Minowa et al, J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016 Jul Abstract OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of slightly lateral ventricular enlargement. METHODS:  1,151 infants were examined with a gestational age of 36 weeks or greater. The presence of ventricular enlargement was assessed when apparent space was…

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Biphasic Positive Airway Pressure or Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A Randomized Trial

Victor et al, Pediatrics, July 2016 Abstract BACKGROUND: There is currently no clear evidence that nasal-biphasic positive airway pressure (n-BiPAP) confers any advantage over nasal-continuous positive airway pressure (n-CPAP). Our hypothesis was that preterm infants born before 30 weeks’ gestation and <2 weeks old when extubated onto n-BiPAP will have…

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Clinical Significance of Slightly Lateral Ventricular Enlargement in Healthy Infants.

Minowa et al, J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016 Jul 18 Abstract OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of slightly lateral ventricular enlargement. METHODS: 1,151 infants with a gestational age of 36 weeks or greater, by a transfontanel ultrasound scan. RESULTS: Two hundred forty-eight infants had ventricular enlargement. The…

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Impact of pulmonary hypertension on neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a cohort study.

Nakanishi et al, J Perinatol. 2016 Jul 21 Abstract OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of pulmonary hypertension (PH) on long-term growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). RESULTS: Sixty-two infants without BPD, 60 with BPD without PH and 20 with BPD with PH were analyzed. Regardless of PH status,…

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Sucrose for analgesia in newborn infants undergoing painful procedures

Stevens et al, Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Jul 16 Abstract BACKGROUND: Administration of oral sucrose with and without non-nutritive sucking is the most frequently studied non-pharmacological intervention for procedural pain relief in neonates. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy, effect of dose, method of administration and safety of sucrose for relieving procedural pain in…

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Antenatal manifestations of inborn errors of metabolism: biological diagnosis

Saban et al, J Inherit Metab Dis. 2016 Jul 8 Abstract Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) that present with abnormal imaging findings in the second half of pregnancy are mainly lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs), cholesterol synthesis disorders (CSDs), glycogen storage disorder type IV (GSD IV), peroxisomal disorders, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation…

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Benign pneumoperitoneum in newborns: which abdomen to open and which one to observe?

Al-Lawama, et al, Clin Case Rep. 2016 May Abstract Benign pneumoperitoneum in newborns is not a rare condition that should be managed conservatively. Neonatologists and surgical teams should work together to avoid unnecessary and potentially risky procedures. Read the Full article from the following link:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4891479/

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Neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration and psychomotor development at preschool age

 Trumpff  et al, Arch Dis Child. 2016 Jul 8. Abstract OBJECTIVE: Thyroid hormones are essential for normal brain development. The aim of this study is to assess if high concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) that is below the clinical threshold (5-15 mIU/L) at neonatal screening is linked to psychomotor development impairments in…

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Neonatal intensive care unit lighting: update and recommendations

Rodríguez & Pattini, Arch Argent Pediatr. 2016 Aug Abstract Achieving adequate lighting in neonatal intensive care units is a major challenge: in addition to the usual considerations of visual performance, cost, energy and aesthetics, there appear different biological needs of patients, health care providers and family members. Communicational aspects of light, its…

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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in hospitalized infants

Hornik et al, Early Hum Dev. 2016 Jul 8 Abstract BACKGROUND: Hospitalized infants requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) represent a high-risk group. Recent data on risk factors for mortality following CPR in this population are lacking. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 2231 infants receiving CPR. Of these, 1127 (51%) survived to…

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Abnormal vaginal colonization by gram-negative bacteria is significantly higher in pregnancy conceived through infertility treatment compared to natural pregnancy.

Kim et al, J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016 May Abstract OBJECTIVE: To compare abnormal vaginal colonization between natural pregnancy and pregnancy by infertility treatment in high-risk parturient women and to examine the association between abnormal vaginal colonization and early-onset neonatalsepsis (EONS). RESULTS: Among 1096 pregnancies, the rate of vaginal colonization by gram-negative bacteria, especially Escherichia coli was…

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Neonatal outcomes according to different therapies for gestational diabetes mellitus.

Silva et al, J Pediatr (Rio J). 2016 Jun 28 Abstract OBJECTIVES: To compare different neonatal outcomes according to the different types of treatments used in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. The study population comprised pregnant women with GDM treated at a public maternity…

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Serum Lactate Levels and Perfusion index: Are These Prognostic Factors on Mortality and Morbidity in Very Low Birth Weight Infants?

Tuten et al, J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016 Jun Abstract AIM: Early hemodynamic assessment of global parameters in critically ill newborns fails and requires mostly invasive measurements in neonatal intensive care unit. Clinical signs are frequently used for assessment of peripheral perfusion. Perfusion index (PI) is a new noninvasive numerical value…

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Higher or lower oxygen for delivery room resuscitation of preterm infants below 28 completed weeks gestation: a meta-analysis

Oei et al, Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal, May 2016 Abstract Objective: To systematically review outcomes of infants ≤28+6 weeks gestation randomised to resuscitation with low (≤0.3) vs high (≥0.6) fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) at delivery. Design: Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of low (≤0.3) vs high (≥0.6) FiO2resuscitation.  Main outcome measures:…

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Impact of hands-on care on infant sleep in the neonatal intensive care unit.

Levy  et al, Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016 Jun 30 Abstract STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sleep disruption is increasingly recognized in hospitalized patients. Impaired sleep is associated with measureable alterations in neurodevelopment. The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment has the potential to affect sleep quality and quantity. We aimed: (i) to determine the frequency and…

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Risk Factors for Extubation Failure in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants.

Wang et al, Pediatr Neonatol. 2016 Jun 7. Abstract BACKGROUND: Although antenatal steroids and early use nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) have significantly improved outcomes of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, intubation with ventilator support is still commonly required in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. The optimal timing of extubation in…

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Duration and intensity of fluconazole for prophylaxis in preterm neonates

A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Che et al, BMC Infect Dis. 2016 Jun 27 Abstract BACKGROUND: The currently available evidence shows fluconazole is an effective prophylaxis treatment against invasive fungal infections in preterm neonates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). However, the duration and dosing of this prophylaxis treatment remain controversial. Thus,…

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