Maternal serotonin transporter genotype affects risk for ASD with exposure to prenatal stress.

Hecht et al, Autism Res. 2016 Apr Abstract Stress exposure during gestation is implicated in several neuropsychiatric conditions, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous research showed that prenatal stress increases risk for ASD with peak exposure during the end of the second and the beginning of the third trimester. However, exposures…

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Prenatal Cannabis and Tobacco Exposure in Relation to Brain Morphology

A Prospective Neuroimaging Study in Young Children El Marroun et al, Biol Psychiatry. 2016 Jun Abstract BACKGROUND: Cannabis use during pregnancy has been associated with negative behavioral outcomes and psychopathology in offspring. However, there has been little research evaluating alterations in brain structure as a result of maternal cannabis use. In this…

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Neonatal resuscitation equipment: A hidden risk for our babies?

Winckworth et al, J Paediatr Child Health. 2016 May Abstract AIM: Neonatal infections carry a heavy burden of morbidity and mortality. Poor practice can result in unintentional colonisation of medical equipment with potentially pathogenic organisms. This study will determine the prevalence and type of bacterial contamination on exposedneonatal resuscitation equipment in…

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Vancomycin toxicity in neonates: a review of the evidence

Lestner et al, Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2016 Jun Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vancomycin is a first-line agent in the treatment of serious Gram-positive infections in the neonatal population. The published evidence on vancomycin toxicity in neonates is limited. This review summarizes preclinical studies and clinical trials describing vancomycin toxicity. We discuss proposed…

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Pertussis Antibody Concentrations in Infants Born Prematurely to Mothers Vaccinated in Pregnancy

Kent et al, Pediatrics, June. 2016 Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Maternal antenatal pertussis-containing vaccination is recommended for the prevention of neonatal pertussis, but the ability of maternal vaccination to protect premature infants is unknown. We hypothesized that that infants born prematurely to antenatally vaccinated women would have higher pertussis antibody…

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Long-term Cognitive and Health Outcomes of School-Aged Children Who Were Born Late-Term vs Full-Term

Figlio et al, JAMA Pediatr, June 06, 2016 Importance  Late-term gestation (defined as the 41st week of pregnancy) is associated with increased risk of perinatal health complications. It is not known to what extent late-term gestation is associated with long-term cognitive and physical outcomes. Information about long-term outcomes may influence physician and patient…

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Febrile Seizure Risk After Vaccination in Children 6 to 23 Months

Duffy et al, Pediatrics, June 2016 Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: An increased risk of febrile seizure (FS) was identified with concomitant administration of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) 13-valent during the 2010–2011 influenza season. Our objective was to determine whether concomitant administration of IIV3 with other vaccines…

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Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and the risk of febrile seizures and childhood epilepsy.

Maimburg et al, Epilepsy Res. 2016 May 19 Abstract:  PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to estimate the association between newborn children treated with phototerapy for hyperbilirubinemia and the subsequent risk of febrile seizures or epilepsy in early childhood. METHODS: We conducted a follow-up study of singleton children (N=70 230) born between February…

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Altered breathing mechanics and ventilatory response during exercise in children born extremely preterm.

MacLean et al, Thorax. 2016 Jun 3.  Abstract BACKGROUND: Extreme preterm birth confers risk of long-term impairments in lung function and exercise capacity. There are limited data on the factors contributing to exercise limitation following extreme preterm birth. This study examined respiratory mechanics and ventilatory response during exercise in a large cohort of…

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Randomized Controlled Trial of Talactoferrin Oral Solution in Preterm Infants.

Sherman et al, J Pediatr. 2016 May 31. Abstract OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the safety and explore the efficacy of recombinant human lactoferrin (talactoferrin [TLf]) to reduce infection. STUDY DESIGN: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial in infants with birth weight of 750-1500 g.  RESULTS: The rate of hospital-acquired infections was 50% lower in the…

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Treatment Options for Persistent Coagulase Negative Staphylococcal Bacteremia in Neonates.

Gkentzi et al, Curr Pediatr Rev. 2016 Jun 3 Department of Paediatrics, University General Hospital of Patras, Patras Medical School, Rio, Greece Abstract BACKGROUND: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the leading cause of late-onset sepsis in neonatal intensive-care units (NICUs). Despite adequate therapeutic levels and in vivo susceptibility, vancomycin is not always adequate…

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Preterm birth and cerebellar neuropathology.

Improved survival rates in premature infants and more sensitive neuroimaging techniques have expanded the scope of recognized neurodevelopmental disabilities in this vulnerable population and have implicated a role for cerebellar pathology in their origin. Although supratentorial pathologies are well studied, cerebellar pathology has been under-recognized in premature infants. The purpose…

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Reading difficulty in school-aged very low birth weight infants in Japan.

Takeuchi et al, Brain Dev. 2016 May 10 Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of and the perinatal risk factors related to reading difficulty in school-aged very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) with normal intelligence. RESULTS: Twenty-five (31.6%) out of 79 subjects had RD. We discovered that treated retinopathy of prematurity (tRoP) was…

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Effect of Early Prophylactic High-Dose Recombinant Human Erythropoietin in Very Preterm Infants on Neurodevelopmental Outcome at 2 Years: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Natalucci et al, JAMA. 2016 May 17 Abstract IMPORTANCE: Very preterm infants are at risk of developing encephalopathy of prematurity and long-term neurodevelopmental delay. Erythropoietin treatment is neuroprotective in animal experimental and human clinical studies. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prophylactic early high-dose recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) in preterm infants improves neurodevelopmental outcome at…

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Does Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency Increase the Risk of Preterm Birth: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

Qin et al, Nutrients. 2016 May 20 Abstract: There are disagreements among researchers about the association between vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and preterm birth (PTB). Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to evaluate this association. We performed a systematic literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library through…

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Intraventricular hemorrhage in neonates born before 32 weeks of gestation-retrospective analysis of risk factors.

Szpecht et al, Childs Nerv Syst. 2016 May 28 Abstract INTRODUCTION: Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) affects 15-20 % of babies born before 32 weeks of pregnancy. A lot of risk factors of developing IVH are known. The making appropriate recommendations for dealing with infant born less than 32 weeks of gestation aimed at reducing the incidence…

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Repeated Courses of Oral Ibuprofen in Premature Infants with Patent Ductus Arteriosus: Efficacy and Safety

Olgun et al, Pediatr Neonatol. 2016 Apr 29. Abstract BACKGROUND: There are limited data about the results of repeated oral ibuprofen (OIBU) treatment. This study aimed to describe patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure rates and adverse events after repeated courses of OIBU in premature infants with PDA. METHODS: Preterm infants with hemodynamically significant…

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Clinical Management of Recurrent Retinopathy of Prematurity after Intravitreal Bevacizumab Monotherapy.

Hittner et al, Ophthalmology. 2016 May Abstract PURPOSE: To determine incidence, risk factors, risk period, and characteristics of recurrent retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) treated by intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) monotherapy. RESULTS: Intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy in 241 infants (471 eyes) was reviewed. Recurrence incidence was 8.3% (20/241) for infants and 7.2% (34/471) for eyes.  CONCLUSIONS: Premature…

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